Newsletter: Business credit usa How to get a loan with bad credit Bad credit new home loan Prepaid credit card deal Chase credit card customer service Acs consolidation loan student Home improvement mortgage loan Bad credit personal loan canada International medical student loan Annual credit free government report Card consolidation credit debt depot Credit card rate Advance cash loan military payday New york debt consolidation service Card consolidation credit loan Bad credit loan mortgage tennessee Delaware bad credit mortgage Bad credit auto loan financing Average debt loan student Military bad credit personal loan Application loan student Apply card college credit student Good credit score range Bad credit mortgage rating Student loan consolidation rate Student loan bill consolidation Consolidate credit card Bad credit loan uk Consolidation consumer credit Bank card credit credit one The best credit card Cheap payday loan Secured credit card in canada Debt consolidation loan for people with bad credit Monogram credit card bank of georgia Bad card credit credit free people Florida home loan south Legal credit card debt elimination California bad credit mortgage Credit repair lawyer Auto bad car credit loan used Your own credit repair business Reporting credit card fraud Check credit rating Bad credit car loan dallas Credit online report Target credit card application Bad card credit credit visa No bank statement payday loan Austin christian counseling credit Bad credit loan online Bad credit history visa card Bad credit cash loan Home loan rochester new york Credit credit free report score Low credit score loan Pennsylvania home equity loan Bank of america credit card payment Card citibank credit payment Debt consolidation home loan Consolidation debt loan non profit Get rid of credit card debt Bad credit car refinance Bad consolidation credit loan people Federal home loan bank of new york Instant approval payday loan Fha government home loan Card credit machine nurit wireless Bad credit fair loan mortgage Debt consolidation and reduction Retail credit card processing Home savings and loan bank Credit card debt consolidation oregon Home loan mortgage rate va Texas home equity loan Consolidate credit debt Credit repair agency Credit free government report Credit card debt statute of limitation Ontario home loan Bad credit mortgage refinancing Free credit bureau report Va home improvement loan Federal home improvement loan Repair credit repair credit Card consolidation credit debt unsecured Cash back credit card Bad bill consolidation credit loan Las vegas home loan Federal government student loan No credit check unsecured credit card Chase business credit card Airline reward credit card Florida bad credit home mortgage Home loan rate Repair your own credit I have bad credit need a loan Calculate credit score Credit report help 0 card credit interest Consolidation loan personal student 100 home equity loan Accept credit card merchant account Sallie mae student loan services Free credit score Maryland home improvement loan Payday loan uk Card credit online pay sears Credit free report site Apply approval card credit instant Credit card debt management Card consolidation credit debt service Bad credit home loan mortgage Instant trans union credit report Fixed rate home loan Background check credit report Consolidation loan personal secured Apply online for credit card Loan stafford student Debt consolidation home mortgage loan Bad credit en language loan personal Credit card machine leasing Best payday loan Bad credit credit card approval Trans union credit report history Online payday loan instant approval Consolidate federal student loan No balance transfer fee credit card Application business card credit small Small personal loan bad credit Bad card credit credit Best fixed rate credit card Secret credit report repair Countrywide customer home loan Credit equifax number phone report Citi credit card online Bad credit home purchase loan Bad debt consolidation loan Bad credit florida in loan mortgage Low credit score Best reward credit card Online debt consolidation program Sterling bank secured credit card Consolidation debt lead mortgage Balance best card credit transfer Bad credit car loan Bank federal home indianapolis loan Credit card interest rate Credit report rating Apply for student credit card Bad card credit credit loan Card credit Consolidation consumer credit debt Establishing business credit Home owner loan uk Airway card card credit master us Loan personal student Debt consolidation lender Bad credit mobile home loan Canadian credit rating Direct loan services student Bad credit equity loan Business master card credit card Free porn without credit card Best card credit rate secured Quick bad credit loan Credit card fraud and identity theft Home loan albany new york Consolidation debt link loan student Bad credit home loan washington Chase bank one credit card Get credit card numbers Consolidating credit card debt Payday loan faxless no fax Free credit repair letter Quick cash payday loan Application card citi credit Credit online personal report Capital one credit card application Student credit card canada Home improvement loan uk Direct federal loan student Bad credit home loan mobil Consolidated credit counseling service Bad credit car finance Uk no credit check credit card Free debt consolidation help Card company credit sue Consolidation loan student Bad credit personal loan company 0 percent interest credit card Atlanta debt consolidation loan Credit free from report trans union Bad credit score Home interest loan only Credit equifax free from report Card credit fixed interest low rate Premier bank credit card Family credit counseling Used credit card machine Card credit gas hess Eligibility home loan va Free credit card consolidation Credit card application for bad credit Credit free once report year Consumer credit repair No credit needed credit card Card credit debt free help Fast fax loan no payday Credit or bankruptcy counseling Free trans union credit report Bad credit mortgage uk Debt consolidation credit counseling Corporation loan sc student Credit free missouri report Credit card debt loan Card compare credit different from offer American debt consolidation Loan mortgage home equity real estate Internet credit card payment processing Consolidation debt loan online uk Citibank credit card customer service Card counseling credit debt services Bank federal francisco home loan san Minnesota home improvement loan Orchard bank credit card services Home equity loan nevada Secret to increase credit score Canada student loan program Approval card credit instant offer Tennessee home loan 3 credit online report Best low rate credit card Business card credit prepaid Best buy credit card Online credit card processing software Application bad card credit credit Visa credit card fraud Fast cash advance payday loan Penalty for credit card fraud Chase credit card and circuit city Bad credit personal loan lender Home loan owner personal secured 0 apr credit card Fast loan online payday Guaranteed loan personal unsecured Bad credit business credit card Florida mortgage loan debt consolidation Cic credit report Instant approval bad credit card Mobile home refinance loan Bad card credit master Christian credit counseling services Credit card terminal repair Printable credit card application Fast credit repair Guaranteed online personal loan Bankruptcy loan personal unsecured Card consolidation credit debt debt Home equity mortgage loan Credit card and student loan consolidation Maryland debt consolidation loan 0 apr card credit transfer Cheap personal loan Bad credit credit card Unsecured credit card for people with bad credit Bad card credit credit get Government home loan Consolidation credit debt American express personal finance credit card business Credit counseling san diego Credit card secured master card Free credit rating report Non profit debt consolidation program Consolidation credit debt management Apply online for instant approval credit card Credit card for business poor credit Consumer counseling credit services California bad credit mortgage loan Average american credit card debt 0 credit card application Best home equity loan Bad credit bill consolidation loan Free download porn no credit card Free credit rating score Home loan Florida free debt consolidation loan Consolidation en language loan student Dispute item on credit report 0 approval card credit instant Hsbc rs credit card Personal loan interest rate Bad credit financing home loan Approval card credit guaranteed instant Accept credit card on the web Card credit service Balance card credit transfer advance cash loan payday Card credit mutual providian washington Personal loan lender Bankruptcy home improvement loan Bad credit car loan new york Secured personal loan Credit repair attorney Card consolidation credit debt loan relief Card credit hsbc nv Bad credit 2nd mortgage refinance Florida home loan Credit card debt solution Southwest airline credit card Gm credit card offer Bad card credit credit gas Credit card debt uk Debt consolidation and credit rating No credit card xxx Bad credit automobile loan Instant business credit card 0 card credit interest transfer No credit card required credit report Free copy of credit report Bad credit debt consolidation mortgage Free credit card offer Chase secured credit card Mortgage loan refinance and debt consolidation Internet credit card fraud Bad credit home loan texas Consolidation loan review student Card credit internet payment processing 0 card credit introductory offer 0 interest credit card uk Bad capital card credit credit one Card credit payment services Low credit score mortgage Card chase credit service Acs loan servicing student Poor credit home improvement loan Sample credit repair letter Citibank student loan corporation Bad credit cell phone American express credit card Guaranteed credit card for bad credit Bad credit rating Consolidation debt loan mortgage second Care one credit counseling Consolidation credit debt help Guaranteed high risk personal loan Providian credit card Aes student loan payment Best business card credit small Federal student loan interest rate No annual fee credit card Credit card merchant account program Home loan mortgage mortgage refinance Delaware home equity loan Free phone no credit card required Obtain a free credit report online Mbna debt consolidation Chevron gas credit card Disney reward credit card Apply canada card columbia credit district Gas credit card Interest loan low personal Government home improvement loan Fleet credit card online Credit free line report Bad card credit credit deposit no Do it yourself credit repair Loan for bad credit rating Consumer credit counseling ohio California home improvement loan Credit card for people with bad credit Consolidate credit card debt Consumer credit counseling indiana New home loan Low fixed rate credit card Consolidation debt graduate loan student Canada consolidation debt loan loan student Short term payday loan 0 credit card offer Online credit repair Card consolidation credit debt oregon Va home loan rate One hour payday loan Bad cash credit loan quick Approval card credit instant Faxless payday loan in kansas Credit card for international student Texas home equity loan law Best debt consolidation loan Accept credit card Mbna credit card Credit score rating Copy credit free report Free credit check report Debt settlement effect on credit report Consumer credit counseling of atlanta Consolidation credit debt poor Best credit card for bad credit Citi financial credit card Student loan consolidation Bank of america prepaid credit card Short term personal loan 0 transfer credit card Va home loan certificate Company loan student Christian credit card counseling Bad consolidation credit debt Card credit instant prepaid Very bad credit auto loan Banks that offer secured credit card Bad credit need a credit card Home equity 2nd mortgage loan Phone credit card processing Home loan columbus ohio Credit card special offer California free annual credit report Fast bad credit loan Bankruptcy loan student Best unsecured personal loan Debt consolidation plan Citizen bank credit card Access credit report online Federal direct student loan Fixed rate credit card Debt consolidation home equity loan 0 credit card with no balance transfer fee Comsumer credit counseling Com credit report Card credit minimum payment Loan payday quick Instant approval canadian credit card Credit card free balance transfer Card college credit debt statistics student Home loan uk Bad credit home loan need Wal mart discover credit card Wipe out credit card debt Bad credit card offer Consolidation federal loan private student Citibank credit card philippine online Chase manhattan bank credit card Apply loan online personal Credit experian free report score Capital one credit card login Credit card auto reward Best free debt consolidation service Instant online credit card application Secured credit card offer Completely credit free report Direct loan loan student Debt consolidation loan for home owner 0 interest rate credit card Bad credit help Card credit online payment shell Credit card reward program Consolidation loan nelnet student Experian credit report agency Bank card credit line orchard Equifax business credit report 3 bureau credit report Online application visa credit card Bank credit card bad credit Low apr visa credit card Credit debt counseling services America card credit debt Car loan for college student Bank cincinnati federal home loan Federal direct student loan consolidation Visa credit card instant approval No deposit credit card Credit counseling agency Bad business card credit credit Consumer credit information Approval loan online personal Cash until payday loan Secured credit card high limit Government student loan Debt and bill consolidation Student loan corporation Get out of credit card debt Christian consolidation debt Credit card counseling service Card credit interest low rate student Online credit card merchant account Secured credit card fast No limit credit card Loan refinancing student Virginia home equity loan Small business loan bad credit Consolidation loan student uk Credit card debt consolidation company Card credit credit poor unsecured Credit read report Well fargo financial bank credit card Online debt consolidation program Credit equifax report Poor credit small business loan Bad credit boat loan Apply credit card on line Home improvement loan florida Quick personal loan 1st financial bank credit card Chase bank credit card Car loan student Consolidation federal loan non student Bad credit need a personal loan Best credit card debt help Texas construction home loan Fha home loan Loan payment student Consumer credit report Car loan bad credit history Secured credit card company Amazon card chase credit Bad credit home loan refinance Debt consolidation for people with bad credit Credit free indiana report Card citibank credit online payment Chase continental credit card Community credit counseling America card mbna credit bank Federal student loan default Card consolidation credit debt management No equity debt consolidation loan Direct merchant bank credit card Card com credit providian Florida home equity loan rate Best credit card merchant account On line credit card processing Chase credit card application Trans union personal credit report Citibank business credit card Legally eliminate credit card debt Bad card company credit debt Credit online report score Home equity loan utah Well fargo student loan consolidation Card credit instant virtual Credit card processing rate Fast home equity loan Business credit check Real time credit card processing Card chase credit na Best personal loan Credit free one report time Bad credit credit card uk New orleans home loan Debt consolidation loan uk Equifax credit rating Alternative consolidation loan student Unsecured credit card California home loan refinancing Home loan finance uk Check credit loan no student Credit report rating score Card college credit debt Web site credit card processing Business credit express Low cost credit card processing Application card credit unsecured Apply approval card credit instant online Prepaid student credit card Calculator loan student Apply for low rate credit card 3bureau online credit report Home home improvement loan rate Credit report trw Business credit card with no personal guarantee Credit counseling chicago Bad consolidation credit debt loan people Free porn no credit card needed Free cell phone no credit card needed Bad credit home loan refinance Credit card processing software Debt help loan student Home equity loan for people with bad credit Credit card debt consolodation Debt management credit counseling corporation Colorado home equity loan .com credit free report Trafalgar home loan 0 intrest free credit card Apr balance card credit low transfer Home improvement loan new hampshire Credit card consolidation best deal Apply for credit card instantly Bad credit auto refinancing loan Free online experian credit report Card consolidation credit debt reduction Discover secured credit card National consumer credit Student loan consolidation credit rating Card credit mbna services Credit card for people with no credit history Christian debt consolidation loan Bad credit home loan score Consolidation debt five free in Mbna credit card company Free credit repair Instant bad credit personal loan Payday cash loan Christian counseling credit houston Annual credit free law report Payday loan no faxing cheap Credit free maryland report Cash fast loan online payday Card credit free no porn video Bad credit loan company Cell phone no credit card required Approval canada card credit instant Business card consolidation credit Miami home loan Credit card 0 on life of balance Credit free illinois report Capital card com credit one Approval card credit credit instant Credit card with no bank account Log home construction loan Loan mexico new student First financial bank usa credit card Top debt consolidation loan Bad card credit credit people unsecured Low fee payday loan Instant credit card Business debt consolidation loan Federal home loan bank Free debt consolidation service Student loan debt consolidation Fax free payday loan Personal loan unsecured loan Bad card credit debt uk Experian credit report dispute No interest credit card Credit card merchant services Cheap credit card Bank of america government credit card Free experian credit score and report Bad consolidation credit Trans union company credit report Debt consolidation loan for home owner 0 apr visa credit card Bad canada card credit credit in 0 balance transfer credit card Refinance home loan texas World savings home loan Home mortgage loan uk South carolina bad credit mortgage Credit card help Bank personal loan for bad credit Instant approval credit card offer Credit card fraud law Credit card reward point Canada credit report Master credit card Cash loan online payday Credit free government report us Credit rating scale Bad credit auto loan Home equity loan indiana 600 credit mortgage score second Bad credit student loan Chase credit card service Consumer report credit card Airline mileage credit card America bank card credit mbna Second mortgage versus home equity loan Consolidation debt link suggest Christian consolidation debt nonprofit Consolidation government loan student Debt consolidation loan lead Credit score simulator Personal loan Credit card business opportunity Personal loan quote Credit card deal uk Visa business credit card Personal loan agreement Card company credit online processing Equity home loan massachusetts rate Personal secured loan finance Card credit login mbna Best gas credit card Credit card consolidation Bad credit mortgage lender First horizon home loan corporation 0 finance credit card Personal loan instant approval Student credit card instant approval Unsecured bad credit card Credit debt consolidation loan New home buyer loan florida Consumer credit council No checking account payday loan Alternative student loan for bad credit Low interest credit card Debt consolidation quote Small business credit card Unsecured business line of credit Sears credit card canada Canadian credit report Aspire credit card Free credit report in georgia Consumer credit consolidation Bird counseling credit humming Providian credit card application Used mobile home loan Card credit interest low visa 125 home equity loan California home loan refinance Bad credit loan mortgage very Bank one credit card Credit card processing fee Check credit report Credit free online report Free music download without credit card Free credit report without using a credit card 3rd party credit card processing Guaranteed loan personal Credit card vending machine Free instant credit card approval Credit fico free report score Accept credit card small business Cheap credit card deal Computer financing bad credit Bad card credit unsecured Credit and debit card processing Bankruptcy california home loan Applied bank card credit 125 second mortgage bad credit Credit card debt law Download free music no credit card required California home loan mortgage Direct deposit prepaid credit card Debt free with credit counseling Consumer credit and debt counseling Bad credit indiana loan mortgage Reward 660 credit card

Hecklers wrong but so was Heather Mac Donald

October 31st, 2013

I was disappointed to see that Instapundit (Glenn Reynolds) commented favorably on Heather Mac Donald’s piece concerning hecklers at Brown University. Of course, heckling has no place on a campus, which should be a haven for rational discourse. However, the essence of Mac Donald’s article was that NYC’s enhanced stop-and-frisk was the explanation for the significant decline in the NYC crime rate and the students were stupid for questioning it.

I actually looked at this issue a couple of months ago because I’ve been extremely skeptical of the claims that policing explains the drop. In criminology, it is generally accepted that the deterrent effect of police is a minor contribution, if it is one at all. The most important determinants of crime rate are demographic and socioeconomic, with the %-age of the population that is male and 15-24 being one of the best predictors. What I’ve found doesn’t support the claim that policing (broken windows and later enhanced stop and frisk) explained the drop. I focused on homicides as a proxy because those data are generally easy to find. The first thing I found was that after the 1990 peak, homicides began a precipitous drop. The drop continued for at least 5 years before Giuliani was able to put his new policing program in place. One can reasonably question the policing claims on the basis of post hoc ergo propter hoc.

It would be fair to counter that, although a decline was in progress, it continued and even accelerated BECAUSE of policing tactics. But actual research in this area can’t find much of a correlation. The Freakonomics guys argued that a major factor in the decline of crime in the US and NYC was legalized abortion. This is another way of offering up the demographic argument centered on the %-age of 15-24 year old males, claiming that cohort was reduced by abortion. Without going into details, I found the abortion argument unconvincing.

Whether abortion played a significant role, demographics and socioeconomic factors remain the best explanation. One thing that Mac Donald notes is that Blacks comprise 23% of the population and they, as a group, commit a disproportionate percentage of crimes. This sad statistic is found in most large cities in the US. Mac Donald is actually on the correct analytical path but instead uses the statistic to justify massive violations of the 4th Amendment. Since it is the case that the inner-city Black population is the most criminogenic, why not look at some other representative cities and their demographics and see what that tells us.

Chicago was 33%+ Black in 2010. Therefore, we’d expect a higher murder rate than NYC, and sure enough, that’s what we see. But Chicago’s murder rate, relative to NYC’s, is much higher than the 33% would predict. Policing? Consider this. Chicago has been in general population decline since 1950. Moreover, there is very good evidence that “Black flight” from the inner city has begun and mirrors the earlier “White flight”: more affluent Blacks are moving out of the city to the suburbs or even out of state. This has had the effect of producing a higher concentration of low SES Blacks in the city. It magnifies the crime/murder impact, relative to NYC. Even more striking is Detroit, which is now >80% Black. Everyone who could leave has left. And Detroit has a very high murder rate.

What about NYC? In contrast to Chicago and Detroit, its population continues to increase. NYC also has one of the highest percentages of immigrants of any large city. I didn’t bother to find out what percentage of immigrants would fall into the category of Black but it is fair to say that there must be some percentage who do. Legal immigrants tend to have a low crime rate. If it is the case that the current Black population of NYC is simply in much better shape economically than is the case in most other cities, that alone would explain the difference. Has anyone done an in-depth analysis of Black SES in NYC?

I didn’t bother to really dig but it seems to me that Mac Donald, someone who is actually PAID to do that sort of analysis, should have given it a go. I’m satisfied to raise legitimate questions and leave the rest as an exercise for the student - or in this case as an exercise for the putative scholar.

I’m fine with someone challenging the rationale for a constitutional right like the 4th and arguing for repeal on utilitarian grounds (though Mac Donald goes way beyond that, seemingly denying there is a right involved). Since we are talking about a constitutional right, the utilitarian argument must be compelling. Mac Donald doesn’t meet that burden. Not even close.

As a final thought, there may be a level of unscientific idiocy spouted by someone like the typical police bureaucrat on a college campus that is severely provocative. I don’t think the hecklers should have succumbed, particularly when there are such good arguments with which to tie this Commissioner up. They should have at least given the guy a chance to beclown himself. Their professors should have taught the hecklers how much fun it is to humiliate a pompous know-nothing with a devastating counter-argument. Shouting someone down deprives a person of one of life’s great pleasures.

The “David Long Law” and Nullification

March 2nd, 2013

The contretemps between Senate President David Long and 11 Republican sponsors of SB 230, a bill that would empower Indiana to nullify unconstitutional federal laws and regulations, is not just an internecine battle between main line conservatives and Tea Party insurgents – it is also a more fundamental struggle between differing views of our constitutional system of checks and balances.

Andrea Neal, in her article “Democracy Debate Around Senate President David Long”, agrees with critics who say the Long should not stand in the way of hearings:

“The more hearings the better so the public can have open and honest discussion about public concerns. Nobody favors a return to decision making in smoke-filled rooms. SB 230 has 10 co-authors, itself an indication of substantial support in the upper chamber.”

However, on the substantive issue, the power of a state or states to nullify, Neal says that Long is right:

“As Long points out, the Supreme Court ruled in 1958 in Cooper v. Aaron that states are bound by high court decisions regarding the constitutionality of federal laws and must enforce them, even if they disagree with them. Yes, Indiana must obey the holding in National Federation of Independent Businesses vs. Sibelius.”

Senator Long has written that he is bound by the oath he swore, pursuant to Article 15, Section 4 of the Indiana Constitution, to uphold both the Indiana Constitution and the U.S. Constitution. The source of the requirement that state officials pledge, by oath or affirmation, to support the U.S. Constitution is actually Article VI, Clause Three of the U.S. Constitution. Indiana’s Constitution, merely repeats the requirement. Why did Senator Long cite the Indiana Constitution and not the U.S. Constitution?

Moreover, Senator Long and Ms. Neal fail to address key language in the federal “supremacy clause,” found in Article VI, Clause Two. That clause states that along with the U.S. Constitution itself, federal laws “which shall be made in pursuance thereof . . . shall be the supreme Law of the Land.” In other words, the states must defer to those federal laws, and only those federal laws, which are compatible with the Constitution.

If Long’s interpretation, based upon the 1958 Cooper decision, is correct, why would the Framers have had state officials pledge to support the Constitution instead of the federal government? Clearly, the answer is that, while relying on competing interests and constituencies within the federal government (the tripartite structure of the federal government, and pre-Seventeenth Amendment, the bicameral Congress) to act as a brake on federal power, the Framers intended state governments to operate as further and final checks on the power of the central government. History supports this interpretation.

Back in 1798, a Federalist controlled Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were signed into law by Federalist President John Adams. The part dealing with sedition made it a crime to write, publish, or utter “scandalous or malicious” statements against the government of the U.S. In other words, the ink was barely dry on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights when the federal government made it a crime to speak out against policies of the federal government. It has been argued that this law, coming before judicial review was firmly established in Marbury v. Madison (1803), was clearly unconstitutional and would have been struck down had judicial review been in place. Perhaps. But what if Federalist dominated Courts and a Federalist Supreme Court had been called on to consider the constitutionality of this law earlier? Is it so obvious that political considerations would not have led to the Court to uphold the law? Perhaps the Court would have offered the argument that to overturn the law would render the Constitution into a “suicide pact”, allowing anarchy to tear the country apart.

In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, respectively, laying out the legal, constitutional argument for state nullification. Referring to the Constitution as “a compact” in the Kentucky Resolution, Jefferson wrote:

“…[T]he government created by this compact was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; since that would have made its discretion, and not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all other cases of compact among the parties having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions, as of the mode and measure of redress.”

Jefferson provides the answer to Long’s claim that the U.S. Supreme Court disposed of nullification in Cooper. In the Cooper decision, the federal government purported to decide the extent of its own powers, despite Article VI’s and the Tenth Amendment’s expressing the authority of states, through their individual state officials, to protect against unconstitutional federal overreach.

An obvious rejoinder to states having the power to nullify would invoke the sorry spectacle of Southern Governors Maddox, Faubus, and Wallace trying to block public school desegregation based upon reserved state power (mistakenly called “state’s rights” – individual citizens have rights, states have powers). Federal authority to desegregate state government-supported schools came from Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment. The fact that states have equal authority to interpret the Constitution doesn’t mean they will always interpret it correctly.

By the same token, it must be acknowledged by those who would deny the power of states to nullify unconstitutional federal laws that the Supreme Court has rendered numerous constitutionally incorrect decisions. For example, Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment was largely interpreted away in the 1873 Slaughter-House Cases. It was only resurrected by the Supreme Court many years later. Today, nearly all Constitutional scholars agree that the Supreme Court got the Slaughter-House Cases wrong. (Raoul Berger and Robert Bork were notable exceptions. For a good answer to Berger and Bork see Michael Kent Curtis’ book, No State Shall Abridge.)

Another terrible decision was United States v Butler (1936), which concluded that “common defense and general welfare” in the introductory clause of Article I, Section 8 was an enumerated power. In doing this, the Court explicitly rejected the ratification debates over the U.S. Constitution, most notably those between anti-Federalist Robert Yates, writing as Brutus, and Federalist James Madison, writing as Publius. Yates argued that “common defense and general welfare” plus the “necessary and proper” clause would give the proposed federal government plenary power to make any law that could be reasonably construed as being for either or both of these purposes. Madison’s response in Federalist #41 stated that both by normal legislative practice as well as accepted grammar, the first clause was explanatory for the specific powers that were enumerated after. Madison also pointed out several places in the Articles of Confederation where similar language was to be found. If legislating for the “general welfare” gave the new government nearly unlimited power, there was no need for the Constitution, since the power could similarly be found in the Articles. This issue was one of the more contentious ones – had Yates’ argument, rather than Madison’s, prevailed, it is quite likely the proposed Constitution would not have been ratified. Yet, the Supreme Court jettisoned the history of the ratification debates and blithely swept it all away in 1936.

Perhaps the worst of all Supreme Court decisions was Wickard v Fillburn (1942), which concluded that the power to regulate commerce among the states gave the federal government nearly unlimited power to regulate any and all economic activity. This decision requires a completely ahistorical, anachronistic definition of the word “commerce”, which was understood to mean “trade” – not economic activity - at the time the Constitution was ratified (see, for example, Randy Barnett’s “The Original Meaning of the Commerce Clause”).

In fairness, unlike the Slaughter-House Cases, the latter two decisions have not received near universal disapprobation by modern scholars. Originalists – those scholars who see the meaning of the text as understood at the time it was ratified – will say that the Butler and Wickard decisions were wrong. (It’s fair to say that four, possibly five, Supreme Court Justices hew in some degree to originalism.) Those who believe in the Constitution can be interpreted so as to change with the times – the Constitution is a “living document” – would disagree and say that the decisions were correct.

One thing is certain. Taken together, Butler and Wickard have contributed to a nearly unlimited arrogation of power by the federal government to itself. What is the recourse? Senator Long thinks a Constitutional Convention is the response. But the Constitution isn’t the problem – it doesn’t need to be amended. Besides, it is very difficult to amend the Constitution – it was designed that way. Given the constituencies in favor of today’s puissant social welfare state, there is little chance of finding 34 states willing to propose appropriate amendments and no chance of finding 38 to ratify.

Over time, the political class has found that the easiest way to change things is to push through unconstitutional laws and get the Supreme Court to uphold them, relying on the doctrine of stare decisis to make the Supreme Court decisions, once rendered, nearly impossible to reverse. (Even Justices Thomas and Scalia, the most ardent originalists on the Supreme Court, have been constrained by stare decisis.) One might argue that we could slowly evolve back to a constitutional republic by whittling away at the corpus of bad constitutional law created by the Supreme Court. That argument amounts to a hope – a vain one. There will be no interpretive revolution by the Supreme Court to lead the nation back to the Constitution, no matter how devoutly it may be wished. The Supreme Court has never been a revolutionary body and, by design, was never intended to be.

Does Senator Long really think that the Supreme Court is the final word on what is and is not constitutional, whatever the content of its decisions? Did the Framers really mean that even though state officials pledge to support the Constitution, they must robotically defer to the Supreme Court when it renders a decision that clearly violates the Constitution? Let’s explore this. Is it possible to come up with a law so egregious, so flagrantly unconstitutional that it would impel even Senator Long to call for its nullification? Allow me to offer such a law. I call it “The David Long Law”.

To set the stage, assume that the Democrats retake the House of Representatives in 2014 and cement their control over the Senate. In 2015, the Senate applies “the constitutional option” and completely eliminates the filibuster. Shortly thereafter, Congress passes a law to add six Justices to the Supreme Court, a perfectly constitutional act which is quickly accomplished. Meanwhile, arguing the war against terrorists is going badly, the President declares a state of emergency and issues executive orders that effectively eliminate due process in a host of areas. Senator Long speaks out nationally against these executive orders, declaring that the President has become nothing more than a dictator.

Congress responds by passing a law stating that Senator Long is engaging in seditious libel against the President, thereby threatening the peace and security of the United States. Accordingly, he should be imprisoned at the nearest federal penitentiary for a period of five years and all his properties subject to forfeiture. Senator Long takes this to federal court, stating that the law violates the Article I, Section 9 prohibition against Bills of Attainder and ex post facto laws. Long wins in the lower courts but the Supreme Court, by an 8-7 majority, finds against the Senator. Key to the decision is the argument that constitutional rights are not absolute – that a clear threat to public order, such as that presented by Senator Long’s statements against the authority of the President, must be given extra weight. After all, “the Constitution is not a suicide pact.” Later, the President in defending the Supreme Court’s opinion observes that “The David Long Law”, by being limited in its scope, maintains the Americans’ basic rights. “Only the treasonous statements of David Long are being punished,” says the President.

After taking up residence at the federal penitentiary in Terre Haute, how would Senator Long react to the Indiana General Assembly enacting a nullification law? Would he still maintain that state nullification was unconstitutional?

Our constitutional system was designed to be self-regulating – to maintain itself through a process we would today call dynamic feedback. Through generations of neglect, most of the feedback mechanisms have broken down. A permanent bureaucracy operates as a fourth branch of government, promulgating regulations having the force of law, a violation of Article I, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution, which states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. The President issues executive orders having the force of law, in violation of the same constitutional provision. Congress passes laws for which it has no enumerated power. The Supreme Court allows them to stand by creating new powers (for example, “common defense and general welfare”) where they didn’t exist.

The Constitution is the “supreme Law of the Land.” When federal officers, both elected and appointed, in all three branches of government have failed in their duty and have violated their oaths of office, the final support for the Constitution rests with state officials, operating through their state governments. The Framers designed the system that way, as we see in Article VI and the Tenth Amendment. Any doubts about that should be dispelled by the arguments offered by Jefferson and Madison, among others, in 1798.

I can understand why some, even knowing that the Federal Government engages in many activities that violate the Constitution, are leery of the prospect of state nullification. It seems to operate outside the law, to be a form of civil disobedience. It does not and is not. When nullification is properly used to defend the Constitution, it is civil obedience. This is how any and all objections to nullification should be answered.

Wrong but mostly right, Part 2

January 10th, 2012

When I posted Wrong but mostly right back in June of last year, I wrote, “Iran has reached and passed the threshold. The implacable mathematics of the enrichment process decrees that Israel must attack soon.” Now, if you will, is “soon”. Much has happened in the interim. First, an internal Israeli policy debate concerning a preemptive strike was leaked to the press. Subsequently, several key nuclear facilities, including the uranium hexafluoride plant in Esfahan, were attacked by unknown parties. It is not unreasonable to assume that these attacks are part of the covert war against Iran that began under the Bush-43 administration. Thus, the war is underway.

Despite cyber and covert wars, the Iranian program continues to progress. On 8 January, the New York Times reported that the Fordo enrichment facility in Qom (NYT uses Qum) is about to become operational.

“Already Iran has produced enough fuel to manufacture about four weapons, but only if the fuel goes through further enrichment, nuclear experts say.
Some of the fuel at Fordo, Mr. Abbasi said, would be enriched to 20 percent purity for use in a research reactor in Tehran; because of the oddities about how uranium is enriched, those batches would be the easiest to convert for use in weapons.” [Emphasis mine]

As readers of my blog will observe, the “oddity” is that enrichment is a logarithmic process. If we assume that our desired end product is 95% enriched uranium for a bomb, the energy cost to get to 3.5% (low enriched or reactor grade) uranium is over 60% of the total. To get to 20% (medium enriched) uranium uses nearly 90% of the total energy cost. “Easiest” hardly describes it. Most people will assume a linear relationship, not realizing that only 10% of the work remains to go from 20% to 95%.

The strategy Iran is following is brilliant. A stockpile of uranium is being amassed that is enriched to reactor grade, which is permitted under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Another stockpile is created that is medium enriched, which is also compliant with the provisions of the NPT. Instead of racing to the finished line, Iran sedately walks right up to it. All it takes then is a single step to cross it.

How might the final step be taken? Spirit away the stockpile of 20% enriched uranium overnight to a number of widely dispersed facilities. They could be nondescript warehouses or similar buildings. Each could house a standard 164 centrifuge cascade. Iran has tested advanced centrifuges that are roughly 5 times more efficient that the first generation centrifuges installed at Natanz and (apparently) at Qom. These more efficient centrifuges would be ideal for the enrichment endgame. With a dozen such clandestine facilities, Iran could have 2 weapons sitting on ballistic missiles in the first month and every month thereafter until the feedstock was consumed. (The calculations are straightforward. I’m not going to show my work here - I’ll leave it as an exercise for the student.)

Iran’s strategy is predicated on the bureaucratic and political inertia of its adversaries to make “breakout” feasible. Thus far it has worked flawlessly. In my previous postings, when I posited a low threshold at which a preemptive strike against Iran was necessary, I assumed that policymakers would want to avoid the situation that is about to obtain.

The problems posed for the US (and Israel) by the Iranian strategy cannot be overemphasized. Given the above scenario of 12 dispersed centrifuge cascades, let’s posit that Iran diverts enough 20% enriched uranium for 10 bombs. How long would it take for the diversion to be detected? Once diverted, could the nuclear material be tracked? Could the clandestine sites be discovered and attacked in time to prevent bombs from being made?

It’s possible that the diversion might be detected quickly. Both the US and Israel fly drones over the sites of interest and the US has spy satellites available for additional monitoring. Israel likely has substantial humint on the ground and might thereby have advanced warning of a move. Best case is that the enriched uranium could be interdicted before it could be moved. Given the stakes, prudence dictates a rather more pessimistic view of intel capabilities. If small amounts are diverted on a regular basis, the activity might be easier to conceal. But, we can’t rule out a sudden move of the bulk of the inventory in the space of a few hours. The thing to bear in mind is that the amount of 20% enriched uranium feedstock needed to produce one bomb is less than 200 kg. There are many ways to package the uranium hexafluoride to make it appear innocuous.

Once the diversion has occurred, the clock starts. Bombing Natanz, Qom, and the other sites will not solve the problem. Unless the dispersed enrichment sites are detected and destroyed before they can begin processing the feedstock, in 5 or 6 months, Iran will have 10 warheads and a very credible deterrent.

How close is Iran to being able to step across the line? It’s all contingent on the amount of enriched uranium that the Iranians have on hand and whether “hidden in plain view”, dispersed sites actually exist. Based upon history, US intel is likely to get it wrong. The Israelis, in contrast, have repeatedly demonstrated that they have a very effective intelligence gathering apparatus. It will be the Israelis who present the US with the critical information that the time has come to attack.

I’ve been consistently wrong on when the balloon would go up. Iran was never going to negotiate its nuclear program away so what we’ve seen is US policy makers – in both the Bush-43 and Obama administrations – temporizing while various monkey wrenching operations have been executed. Strangely, the one thing that might produce a US attack is the impending election. Gimlet-eyed little Hillary is the warhawk who will have to convince Obama to drop the hammer on the Iranians. Her arguments will be simple. If Iran gets nukes, Obama’s nuclear disarmament initiatives will be dead and so will any chance he might live up to his Peace Prize. There is also the matter of what Obama getting tough with Iran would do for his reelection chances. My personal view is that it will make no difference on the outcome but there will be other schools of thought both in and out of the administration arguing that it will. Suffice that I think there is better than a 50% chance that Obama will give the go ahead before election day.

Wrong but mostly right

June 10th, 2011

This piece has been languishing since January of this year. With the addition of some new information last month, it’s time to unburden myself and clear my hard drive.

From January

I’ve been waiting a very long time to post this – there is now enough information to verify that Iran was attacked by Israel and the United States. The attack physically destroyed centrifuges and other hardware while setting back the Iranian nuclear program. I was wrong about how the attack was conducted but right as to why and when it had to take place.

The story about the Stuxnet worm has been out for some time, initially appearing in mostly internet based publications. Early on, there was evidence that the US and Israel jointly developed Stuxnet. It now appears that much of the speculation has been verified in a 15 January 2011 NYT report on the Stuxnet cyber attack.

The timeline for the cyber attack begins several years ago, though how many years must remain speculative – figure sometime in 2004. The US came into possession of a number of Libyan P-1 centrifuges – the same type used by Iran – after Libya abandoned its nuclear program in 2003. (Recall that after the US military dismantled Iraq’s Baathist regime, Mideast tyrants and theocrats were afraid of the US and its cowboy President, George W. Bush. It was the time when the US was the “strong horse”, before the domestic political opposition began to systematically undermine the Bush administration and its foreign policy.) Using the centrifuges obtained from Libya, a facility was set up at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the express purpose of looking for vulnerabilities that could be exploited.

Some time after this, the German company Siemens joined forces with US government cybersecurity experts to examine vulnerabilities in their controller software. Finding security weaknesses in a software system is necessary to develop defenses against cyber attack but such knowledge ipso factor encompasses exploiting those weaknesses in order to conduct a cyber attack. This was significant because the Siemens controller software was the same used in Iran’s enrichment plants.

There now existed two key elements required to develop a cyber weapon: a P-1 centrifuge cascade and information on holes in the Siemens controller software. All that remained was to put them together. When this happened is unclear, however, a reasonable surmise is sometime in 2008.

According to a 10 January 2009 NYT report, in early 2008, Bush authorized a program that we may infer included a cyber attack:
The covert American program, started in early 2008, includes renewed American efforts to penetrate Iran’s nuclear supply chain abroad, along with new efforts, some of them experimental, to undermine electrical systems, computer systems and other networks on which Iran relies. It is aimed at delaying the day that Iran can produce the weapons-grade fuel and designs it needs to produce a workable nuclear weapon.

Once the Bush administration brought the Israeli’s in to test Stuxnet on the P-1 cascades the latter had developed, the stage was set for the joint attack. The 2008 election intervened and President-Elect Obama was briefed on this program. To his credit, Obama continued the program upon taking office and ultimately pulled the trigger.

When the attack took place in 2009, between 8,000 and 9,000 centrifuges were operating. Recall that in Is there a “threshold” I argued (May 2007) that the U.S should be prepared to attack if Iran reached 8,000 operating centrifuges and that 6,000 would be a more prudent limit. The same assumptions behind those limits would apply to Israel as well. Thus, it is no accident that a joint U.S-Israeli cyber attack took place when Iran had just passed 8,000 centrifuges. My error was in assuming that the only practical way of attacking was conventionally, by aircraft dropping bunker busters.

As the 15 January NYT article avers, the cyber attack was devastatingly effective. It damaged parts of the cascade and forced a shutdown in order to diagnose the problem. Stuxnet operated with surgical precision:
For example, one small section of the code appears designed to send commands to 984 machines linked together. Curiously, when international inspectors visited Natanz in late 2009, they found that the Iranians had taken out of service a total of exactly 984 machines that had been running the previous summer.
Although the enrichment facility was undamaged, the cascades were unable to operate. This gave both U.S. and Israeli policy makers time – time that in the U.S. case was used by the Obama administration to further beat up on Israel in pursuit of a chimerical Mideast peace. For its part, Israel was able to delay its attack and thereby avoid a confrontation with the preternaturally hostile Obama administration until a more favorable time.

The Present

The latest information from the Keystone Kops IAEA reveals that Iran has finally recovered from the Stuxnet attack and is producing enriched uranium at pre-attack levels. Thus, Iran is back to the 8,000 centrifuge threshold I set four years ago.

A major difference between today and early 2009 is that Obama’s disastrous handling of the economy has left him distracted and politically weakened. Add to that, Netanyahu’s brilliant preparation of the U.S. foreign policy battlespace has crippled the Obama administration’s ability to interfere with Israeli military plans. By delaying the Iranian nuclear program, Israel is now free to attack whenever the strategic situation warrants.

I stick by my analysis. Iran has reached and passed the threshold. The implacable mathematics of the enrichment process decrees that Israel must attack soon.

Pejman Yousefzadeh is wrong about “common defense”

February 8th, 2011

Via Instapundit, I found an article titled On Asteroid Defense and Constitutional Law. In in, the writer, Pejman Yousefzadeh, responds to a challenge from liberal writer Mark Kleiman for some “libertarian-leaning” person to explain why the doctrine of enumerated powers would not prevent the Federal Government from “shooting down an asteroid.”

Yousefzadeh leads off by saying

As a libertarian-conservative, I am glad to help resolve this question. Of course, it should be noted from the outset that the framing of these kinds of questions is a common Kleimanian tactic; he tosses out an appealing public policy approach, and then dares readers to conclude that the approach may not be constitutional.

Yousefzadeh then unceremoniously walks right into Kleiman’s trap. He produces an exhaustive originalist analysis of “common defense” to show that, indeed, the Federal Government has the authority to put together an asteroid defense program. In doing so, although he links to Article I, Section 8, where the term appears, he fails to note WHERE it appears. This is of critical importance because, like “general welfare”, which has been used to justify all of the entitlement programs, “common defense” is in the introductory or purpose clause of Section 8.

Any originalist exegesis of the Constitution must include the public debates that took place prior to ratification. There is no better source for these than the writings of the Federalists and the anti-Federalists. The meaning of the phrase “common defense and general welfare” in Article I, Section 8 was one of the more contentious topics debated. The anti-Federalist argument was that that this phrase, along with the “necessary and proper” clause, gave the central government plenary power.

James Madison, unquestionably the most important of the Constitution’s Framers, disposed of the anti-Federalist argument in Federalist 41. Quoting Madison:

Some, who have not denied the necessity of the power of taxation, have grounded a very fierce attack against the Constitution, on the language in which it is defined. It has been urged and echoed, that the power “to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States,” amounts to an unlimited commission to exercise every power which may be alleged to be necessary for the common defense or general welfare. No stronger proof could be given of the distress under which these writers labor for objections, than their stooping to such a misconstruction.

In the succeeding two paragraphs, Madison eviscerates the anti-Federalist interpretation on the basis of grammar, logic, and punctuation. He saves his most devastating argument for the concluding paragraph:

The objection here is the more extraordinary, as it appears that the language used by the convention is a copy from the articles of Confederation. The objects of the Union among the States, as described in article third, are ‘their common defense, security of their liberties, and mutual and general welfare.’ The terms of article eighth are still more identical: ‘All charges of war and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury,’ etc. A similar language again occurs in article ninth. Construe either of these articles by the rules which would justify the construction put on the new Constitution, and they vest in the existing Congress a power to legislate in all cases whatsoever.

What the self-proclaimed “libertarian-leaning” Yousefzadeh has done is to use exactly the reasoning that the anti-Federalists warned would empower the Feds to do practically anything the legislative imagination could dream up. In this case, the imaginative Mr. Yousefzadeh proposes to use the term “common defense” to permit the Federal Government to erect an asteroid defense. Unfortunately, there are a lot of people who consider themselves libertarian and originalist who bend in the first stiff rhetorical breeze. Mr. Yousefzadeh seems to fall into that category.

Allow me to respond to the Kleiman challenge.

The first issue is, as a matter of public policy, is asteroid defense something that SHOULD be the responsibility of the Federal Government. The second issue is, does that power currently reside in the Federal Government? If it doesn’t and it should, the remedy is simple: amend the Constitution.

Starting with the second issue, the answer is, at the present time, the Federal Government has no enumerated power to establish an asteroid defense. Madison’s arguments are irrefutable and informed the state legislators who voted to ratify the Constitution. That the “general welfare” clause became the justification for the entitlement programs despite this is more a reflection on the debasement and politicization of the Supreme Court in the 20th Century than of legitimate constitutional scholarship.

It’s easy to come up with a scenario where an asteroid is discovered hurtling toward the Earth with only a short time to respond. Because, at the present time, only governments have the wherewithal to destroy or, more likely, divert an asteroid, then the U.S. and other governments would be required to act as quickly as possible. If we assume an originalist renaissance had taken place and the Feds were operating according to the Constitution then I am fully confident that a Constitutional Amendment to permit the allocation of funds for asteroid defense would be proposed and submitted to the states in a matter of hours and that state legislatures would race to be in the first 38 to ratify. I doubt the whole process would take more than 24 hours. This is, after all, the 21st Century and we have the internet, cell phones, teleconferencing, and a host of other communication technologies to make a rapid ratification possible.

As for the public policy issue: should the Feds become involved in asteroid defense, I say no. I suspect that Kleiman, like most liberals in my experience, hates the expenditure of funds for space exploration. When I was a young lad (and technocratic liberal), it infuriated me how nearly every other liberal I encountered would dismiss NASA and space exploration with the phrase, “we have to restructure our priorities.” In other words, we have to feed all of the hungry and establish social justice everywhere before we spend a cent on space. Most of those folks went on to become environmental extremists and technophobes. Perhaps I’m wrong about Kleiman but I’d bet I’m not.

Why would I oppose, on the grounds of public policy, Federal involvement? As I’ve discussed elsewhere on this blog, government bureaucracies in time become antithetical to their original purpose. They become self-perpetuating rent seekers. Consider that the Atomic Energy Commission started out with the mission of promoting nuclear energy for civilian use. It underwent a name change and became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and regulate it did. Nuclear power was no longer promoted, it was strangled. I won’t repeat NASA’s failures here except to say that the promise to produce a cheap way to put payloads into low Earth orbit resulted in an expensive and complicated technology that has killed two crews since it debuted in the early 1980’s.

Where does the Federal government belong? The answer is in the military sphere. That would include ICBM’s, SLBM’s, ballistic missile defense, surveillance satellites, and so on. But let the market handle everything else. It will do an infinitely better job. President Obama even seems to agree with me on this, based upon his administration’s space policy. So, perhaps Mark Kleiman and I are on the same side, after all.

Fred Kaplan gets it wrong

February 13th, 2010

In a generally insightful and timely article appearing in Slate, journalist and defense policy expert Fred Kaplan debunks “the nutty theory that Iranian nukes are a good thing.” He echoes some of the arguments I’ve offered over the several years this blog has been in existence. Kaplan, however, errs later in his article when he claims that we have a reasonable amount of time between now and when Iran can amass enough weapons grade U-235 for a bomb that it can fit inside a reentry vehicle on top of a missile.

To support his claim, Kaplan references this Spring, 2008 paper by Alexander Glaser to assert:

…[O]nce they’ve enriched their uranium to the level of 20 percent - it will take a year or more to enrich it further to the 80 percent or 90 percent needed to build bombs.

This is a gross oversimplification, probably derived from Glaser’s concluding section, which states:

The results based on the cascade simulations predict that more than 100 kg of weapon-grade HEU can be produced in one year with 3.5%-preenriched material and a capacity of 5000 SWU/yr, which is equivalent to about 2000 P1-type machines.

Let’s parse Glaser’s conclusion. Iran today is known to have at least 6,000 P1-type centrifuges, not 2,000 (the 2000 was probably a reasonable number nearly 3 years ago when the article was written), and the amount of material needed for a single nuclear weapon is considerably less than 100 kg. How much less? I addressed this in When will Israel attack?, from May 2009:

Using a neutron reflector (like beryllium) along with implosion, a much smaller amount of U-235 is needed for a critical mass than with a gun design and no neutron reflector. This is less than 20 kg, at high enrichment levels.

If we put this information together using Glaser as our source, it means that 2,000 P1 centrifuges can produce 5 small tactical nukes in one year starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) feedstock. Moreover, now that Iran has 3 times that number of centrifuges, if it has enough LEU, it could produce 15/year. That amounts to one tactical nuke in a little less than a month or one strategic nuke in just over a month.

Glaser’s very detailed analysis on separative work and the capabilities of the P1 centrifuge essentially validates the back-of-the-envelop analysis I gave in When will Israel attack?:

To get from natural uranium to 95% enriched, bomb grade uranium (known as high enriched uranium – HEU) takes 6.14424 tSW. To take the same amount of natural uranium to 3.8% enrichment (known as low enriched uranium – LEU) requires 3.97689 tSW. Most of the work (around 64%) expended is to get from 0.711% to 3.8%. With 6,000 or so centrifuges running at max efficiency, it should take only a few weeks to go from 3.8% to 95%.

The fact is that a correct reading of Glaser validates my “threshold” or “breakout” argument.:

So long as the centrifuge operation and LEU UF6 stockpile are compliant with IAEA safeguards, there is no “immediate” threat, or so the argument against preemption goes. Militating against this is the speed with which the first bomb can be produced – a few weeks if the Natanz facility is converted to bomb making.


So, if Glaser (Kaplan’s source) and I are right about Iran’s potential to rapidly produce enough material for nuclear weapons, why has there been no preemption? Kaplan says:

…[I]f they get to that point [of having enough material for a bomb], it’s another matter still to turn the material into bombs and then to fashion and miniaturize the bomb to fit onto a missile. This is rocket science.

To which I would add that it is over fifty-year-old “rocket science”. It is “rocket science” that, as reported several years ago by Jane’s, is based upon proven Soviet reentry vehicle (RV) designs suitable for a 1 MT warhead. Moreover, there is very good evidence that Iran has already tested an implosion design that goes far beyond the crude, first generation “laptop” design. Given all of this, it is reasonable to assume that when Iran produces its first weapon it will almost certainly be a 1 megaton device that can be carried in its redesigned Soviet-era warhead.

Iran has thus far played the international game brilliantly, aided by the foreign policy ineptitude of what Charles Krauthammer has called the “clownish” Obama administration. Contrary to Kaplan, there is very little time to deliberate on what to do about Iran. In any case, the only country with the will and capability to take out Iran’s nuclear program is Israel, so a discussion of what the international community together or the U.S. alone will do is moot. The real question is, what is the Israeli government waiting for?

More Avatar

January 16th, 2010

After posting my review of Avatar, I went to the IMDB site and participated in some of the discussions there. While perusing the various threads, I came upon The Tet Zoo guide to the creatures of Avatar by a zoologist/writer named Darren Naish. He published his observations on Avatar the same day I did mine. Naish had “been reading up on the movie for months” – something I had not – and that, along with his knowledge of zoology, led him to comment on the exobiological aspects of the movie. I’m pleased to say that he and I are largely in agreement. In particular, we agree on the problems associated with the humanoid Na’vi:

Finally, the creatures that feature most strongly in the movie are of course the blue humanoid Na’vi. In many ways these are the easiest of the creatures to criticise, if - that is - you’re like me and think that the odds of human-like creatures evolving independently of us are vanishingly small and downright improbable. On the one hand, you can argue that successful alien films can work fine when the creatures don’t look at all human. And - given that humans are meant to be remotely piloting genetically modified Na’vi bodies - it wouldn’t have mattered to the story what the Na’vi looked like.

On the other hand, this movie is about warfare between cultures, about allegiances, and - I suppose - about cool-looking shit, so it figures that good looking ‘people’ need to feature large in the story. Originally, the Na’vi were going to look weirder, with gills, fins and other structures, but over time they were made to look more human simply to appeal more to the audience. Female Na’vi have breasts, specifically for this reason, apparently. So, yeah, the Na’vi are nothing more than attractive, semi-naked blue people with cat-like features… let’s let it go.

I, however, can’t let it go because, as I’ve stated in my review, If Cameron wants to give us a “science fact” background for his story and not a fantasy-based space opera then that it how Avatar must be judged: on the consistency of the science. I think my explanation that the humanoid features and expression were the result of a crash breeding program is the uniquely rational answer. If the Na’vi were modified through a ruthless culling/breeding program, it gives us an insight into how the global brain manages its environment and how it would likely modify its sentient bio-robots so as to better study the aliens who had arrived. I’m close to 100% certain that Cameron will never acknowledge the problem of the Na’vi – I give zero probability that he’ll ever explore the motivations of the global brain. Too bad, because the global brain is potentially the most interesting character of all.

AVATAR: A trope too far?

January 14th, 2010


I saw Titanic on opening day, 19 December 1997 – my birthday. The movie immediately generated a welter of discussion among critics and cineastes alike. I eventually weighed in with my own “quasi-review”, which I posted on the discussion group “rec.arts.movies.current-films”. The review was titled “TITANIC: Some Reflections”

James Cameron’s new movie, Avatar, came out one day shy of 12 years after the release of Titanic. Now that I’ve seen it (twice) and had a chance to ruminate on the experience, it is fitting that I produce another quasi-review.

At the outset, I must say that as a long-time fan of Cameron’s cinematic oeuvre, there are aspects of Avatar that challenge me. There is a political and philosophical thrust to the movie that is most uncongenial to my world view. I beg the reader’s indulgence while I explain.

There is wide agreement among commentators that the movie offers up good “tree hugger” aliens who are pitted against the lackeys of an evil corporation. Said corporation is raping the edenic moon Pandora for a miraculous substance called “unobtainium”, which possesses unexplained but extremely valuable properties that fetch $20 million a kilo in 2154 dollars. (We are to assume that $20 million is a lot of money but, given the likely inflation rate post-Obama, I figure a loaf of bread in 2154 will probably cost $10 million. More realistically, assuming we maintain an average inflation rate of 3% over the next 144 years, that’s roughly $275K in uninflated 2009/2010 dollars. The current market price of platinum is $1.5K/ounce – that translates to $52.9K/kg. So figure unobtainium is around 5 times more valuable than platinum. Not hugely expensive given a trip of several light years in the RDA corporation’s private starship is required to “obtain” it. But I digress.) Unobtainium is the classic Hitchcockian “MacGuffin” – the thing that provides the raison d’être for the action. All of the humans on Pandora work for the RDA corporation and RDA seeks the riches that unobtainium will bring. The aboriginals, who live in complete harmony with the flora and fauna of Pandora, have no interest in unobtainium – there is no indication they have any idea that it exists.

Commentators who love the movie see it as a science fiction rendering of our own history: Western Civilization expanding at the expense of aboriginals who are our spiritual betters. Commentators who hate the movie see it as PC, anti-Western, revisionist history melded with populist demagoguery and “deep green” environmentalism.

I would naturally incline to the latter view. The “tree hugger” philosophy of the aliens is the purest deep green dogma. I call this dogma eco-fascism (see Democrats are responsible for Global Warming or Goose Pond: an environmental hazard? for some examples of my thinking on the subject). Eco-fascism is unquestionably the most dangerous dogma the world has ever seen: it effectively proselytizes; it has inextricably entangled itself with most Western governments; it is neo-Luddite, neo-Malthusian, neo-Pagan, collectivist, and is virulently anti-human.

Cameron intends for us to identify with the aliens, not the humans. He does this by offering up the Rousseauian ideal of the “noble savage”, a pernicious fiction that remains very popular in the halls of academe and is part of the regular social studies curriculum throughout the public school system. I have an undergraduate degree in sociology and a life-long interest in anthropology so this is a subject about which I have some knowledge. Moreover, I’ve discovered over the intervening years that much of what I learned in college was just plain wrong. (Apropos of which, I’d recommend Nicholas Wade’s book
Before the Dawn
, as a good lay person’s overview of the current state of anthropology, paleoanthropology, and genetics.)

One idea in anthropology I never embraced, even as an undergraduate, was cultural relativism: that all cultures are equal; none is better than any other. I always maintained that the essence of Western Civilization is correct – that the scientific method, reason, and the celebration of the individual are superior to every alternative. This put me at odds with my fellow students – I was always being drawn into arguments because I took the side of Western science and reason over folk “wisdom”.

In order to make it easy for the audience to identify with the aboriginals, Cameron makes them explicitly humanoid – they are so humanoid in fact that they really don’t fit in with the apparent evolutionary history of Pandora. I’ll have more to say on this in due course.

Returning now to reviewing the movie, I agree with critics that Avatar can be seen as “Dances With Wolves in space” though that is not, in and of itself, a negative for me. I enjoyed Dances With Wolves and I think Cameron’s exploration of similar themes in a work of science fiction was handled well. For me, eco-fascism was a trope too far. Cameron has publically and unabashedly acknowledged that the movie is intended to convey a strong environmentalist message, as can be seen in the following interview excerpt.

Well, I think that obviously there’s a connection to recent events, and there’s a conscious attempt to evoke even Vietnam era imagery, with the way the guys jump off the helicopters and so on. It’s a way of connecting a thread through history. I take that thread farther back, and I sure like to have a little historical memory that goes back farther than that to the 17th, 16th centuries and how the Europeans pretty much took over South, Central and North America and displaced and marginalised the indigenous peoples there. And I think there’s this long wonderful history of the human race written in blood, going back as far as we can remember. And the Roman Empire, and even farther back. We had a tendency to just take what we want without asking, as Jake says. I see that as a broader metaphor, not as intensely politicised as some people would make it. Broader in the sense that that is how we treat the natural world.

There’s a sense of entitlement - we’re here, we’re big, we’ve got the guns, we’ve got the technology, we’ve got the brains, therefore we’re entitled to every damn thing on this planet. And that’s not how it works, and we’re going to find out the hard way if we don’t wise up and start seeking a life that’s in balance with the natural cycles of life on Earth. And this is the challenge that’s before us. And I think that, certainly, the film espouses this love-hate relationship with technology.

Obviously, we used technology to tell the story that’s a celebration of nature, which is an irony in and of itself, but I think that it’s not that technology is bad, it’s not that a technological civilisation is bad, it’s that we have to be in control of our technical process. We’re not going to be able to rip our clothes off and go back into the wilderness. First of all there’s not a whole lot of it left, secondly that’s not going to work for 8 billion people. So we’re going to have to think our way out of this, and we’re going to have to do it using technology, using science, but we’re also going to have to be very, very human about it, and get in touch with our emotions and our understanding of each other. One of the themes of the film, I think, is symbolised by the fact that it begins and ends with the character’s eyes opening. It’s about a change of perception, and about choices that are made once our perceptions change.

Is that it? Is Cameron acknowledging that Avatar is largely environmentalist (that is, eco-fascist) propaganda? Ultimately, it doesn’t matter. As is usually the case with Cameron, Avatar is multi-layered and many of these layers (colonialism, environmentalism) are intentional. More intriguing are layers that must be unintentional because they are subversive of his surface message. The observation that artists may not be aware of all of the themes that appear in their work is hardly novel. Isaac Asimov recounted an experience he had attending a lecture where some of his stories were being analyzed. Afterwards, he approached the lecturer to offer corrections to some of the latter’s analysis. After listening patiently to Dr. Asimov’s critique, the lecturer responded something along the lines of, “That’s very interesting – but tell me, what makes you think that because you wrote the story, you know anything about it?”

What I propose to do in the balance of this review is to probe the thematic depths of Cameron’s Avatar - of the story he put on the screen. I’ll analyze areas that critics, both favorable and unfavorable, have missed. I’ll also examine other elements that are present that make the movie much more interesting and complex but in a way that Cameron likely didn’t intend.

Creating Pandora

Cameron’s vision of Pandora is alone worth the price of admission. And, to his credit, Cameron presents it largely as is – there are none of the long explications typical in science fiction movies. If one is paying close attention Cameron gives us enough information to develop a general idea of the physical parameters of Pandora: one character mentions that Pandora has lower gravity and another that it has a thicker atmosphere than Earth. We know the atmosphere is poisonous to humans but we see that it does support combustion so it is oxygen rich. (What makes it poisonous? No explanation is given, though I’d guess a lethally high CO2 level. Why would there be high CO2 given a global jungle? Pandora, being the moon of a gas giant, experiences tidal heating and a high level of volcanism, which produces lots of CO2.) The low gravity and thick atmosphere make the gigantic flying creatures that can be ridden by the humanoids – the Na’vi – scientifically possible.

The flora and fauna on Pandora seem to have elements of an aquatic and terrestrial environment – think coral reef and rain forest. We never see any marine life though we know Pandora has oceans from the scenes of the RDA starship approaching and going into orbit around the moon. With the exception of the Na’vi, all animal life seems to have evolved from a common hexapod ancestor. The Na’vi are the only species we see having four limbs, though in an early scene we are shown some arboreal lemur-like creatures whose arms bifurcate at the elbow. I suspect that Cameron gave us the shot of the lemurs to explain the Na’vi. If the lemurs and Na’vi share a common, arboreal ancestor, it makes sense that brachiation would tend to select for two, rather than four, arms. The lemurs represent the branch that didn’t fully develop brachiation and, hence, have retained a partial hexapod configuration.

Support for my observation that the lemurs are intended to show how the four-limbed Na’vi might have evolved is found when the pack of hyena-like creatures attack protagonist Jake Sully (Sam Worthington). Cameron gives us a close-up of the feet of one of the creatures and we observe that rather than paws, it has something more like an ape’s hands but with three fingers and a thumb. Na’vi hands, of course, follow the same model: three fingers and a thumb. (In a nice touch, the human-Na’vi hybrid avatars have four fingers and a thumb – alien features obvious to a Na’vi. From dialogue we learn avatars also have a distinctive smell.)

The most interesting life form on Pandora is the tree network, which constitutes a global brain. We get our first hints that the trees communicate when Sully provides armed escort for exo-biologist Grace Augustine (Sigourney Weaver) and her assistant, Norm Spellman (Joel Moore) – all in their avatar bodies. We see Augustine and Spellman tapping in to some of the connections between trees, commenting on the electrical current flow. In time, we learn that the individual trees form quadrillions of interconnections – 1012 trees with 104 connections per tree. Functionally, the trees are a single giant brain – a hard science version of Stanislaw Lem’s planetary brain in Solaris (made into a movie by Andrei Tarkovsky). All of the complex animal life that we see in the movie has twin bio-ethernet connectors with the exception of the Na’vi, who have only one “cable” that first appears to be a single, long braided pigtail. The Na’vi use their cable to “bond” with their hexapod horses and the flying “banshees” in order to control and ride them. The Na’vi also connect directly to tree nodes. When Jake does this, we learn that “dead” Na’vi have been uploaded into the planetary brain and, apparently, exist. The form of the existence is not explained – we don’t know whether the dead exist as static recordings of memories or dynamic, self-aware entities.

Gaia versus Pandora

James Lovelock proposed what he called the Gaia Hypothesis in the 1970’s. In his view, all life on Earth effectively functions to maintain a planetary homeostasis that is favorable to life’s continued existence. For example, our oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere is not stable. Free oxygen would never exist were it not being continually replenished by living organisms (photosynthetic plants). Lovelock concluded that one could think of the Earth as a single living organism. In subsequent years, and to the consternation of Lovelock, the Gaia Hypothesis began to take on a religious tenor with eco-fascist acolytes treating it as literally true – as Gaia being the spirit of a living world.

In Avatar, the term “tree hugger” is used several times by characters as an epithet. Tree huggers would be Gaia-worshipping eco-fascists. The Na’vi act and sound like such people and so the humans (who Cameron portrays as ignorant racists) naturally assume that they are contending with a belief system akin to Gaia-worship that makes the Na’vi uncooperative. In the course of the movie, we learn that what is a belief system on Earth is reality on Pandora. The moon Pandora is the living being Pandora.

Pandora as a character

Like the Pandoran ecology, which Cameron only shows but never explains, we learn about Pandora primarily by observing what it does. Grace Augustine delivers a couple of lines late in the movie indicating that the tree system is a biological internet more complex than the human brain although she never articulates that it actually is a brain. The Na’vi princess, Neytiri (Soe Saldana), says that the god – Pandora - only maintains the balance of nature. It never intervenes directly. Yet, when she says that we have already had hints that she is wrong.

We are first introduced to Pandora, though we don’t know it at the time, when one of the flying seeds of the home tree lands on Neytiri’s arrow as she prepares to shoot and kill Sully. She interprets this “sign” as being the home tree god telling her to spare Sully’s life. Of course, that is exactly what Pandora is saying. Shortly thereafter, a large number of seeds descend upon Sully, cover him for a few moments, and then fly away. For Neytiri, this “sign” is unmistakable – the tree god has chosen Sully in some fashion and she is now committed to taking Sully to the tribe and to her mother, Moat (C C H Pounder), the tribal shaman and interpreter of “signs”.

There is only one other instance of clear, purposive behavior from Pandora and that is during the climactic battle when the animals are sent to attack the humans. At this point, we can now see the significance of the bio-ethernet connections on the various animals. They are used to communicate with Pandora. Information is not only uploaded from animals to Pandora, Pandora also downloads instructions – “programs” – for the animals to relentlessly attack humans and their machines. The animals function like biological unmanned combat robots that, once given their targets, operate in a wholly autonomous fashion.

Once again, Cameron has done a remarkable job with the biology. When Sully learns that the dead Na’vi live on in the tree network, he does so at a communication node. The nodes have a dense collection of long, bio-luminescent structures that give the appearance of a weeping willow fashioned from glowing strings of LED’s. This finally explains why animals have those bio-ethernet connectors – they are to communicate with Pandora. The “branches” of the node are passive receptors – any time an animal moves through branches or walks along the ground and brushes against them, there is a reflex in the animal that causes it to make a quick connection and download information into Pandora. It has to be a reflex because all the Na’vi have to do in order to “bond” with various animals is brush their braided connector against one of the target animal’s connectors. It’s easy to see how this arrangement could co-evolve once you have the beginnings of a network.

Returning to Pandora and its intentions and motivations, Cameron doesn’t provide us with any information other that what I’ve detailed above. However, we can draw some reasonable inferences. Pandora could be thought of as an infant genius – perhaps even an infant god, insofar as it is the literal brain of its world. As intelligent self-aware life begins to evolve, it provides Pandora with richer and more detailed observations or “reports” on its surroundings and, perhaps, the first awareness of a wider universe beyond itself. The gas giant around which Pandora orbits and the star around which everything orbits will be observed and reported on. The coming of the aliens – us – offers a whole new set of inputs. We know that there were early contacts between the Na’vi and humans – Grace Augustine has photos of the time when she was “educating” the Na’vi in our language and culture. However, like Solaris, Pandora was actually studying the humans. We know there was an initial period of cooperation, after which cooperation ended. Was this a choice made by the Na’vi while Pandora passively accepted data or did Pandora command the Na’vi to break off contact? I’d assume the latter.

I also assume that Pandora was actively involved in the ecology of Pandora. It had probably been engaging in selective breeding for millions of years – making sure that its biological agents were more reliable sources of data and with better, more responsive connectors. Predators could be programmed to go after prey with shorter connectors and spare prey with longer ones. The same sort of selection could be going on in mating, with the length of connectors being programmed as a preference.

This brings us back to a comment I made about the human-ness of the Na’vi. Even if we accept that four-limbed bipeds with mammalian features evolved naturally, without any direction from Pandora, the odds that most of the facial features as well as all of the facial expressions would be human are nothing less than astronomical. Such a creature evolving elsewhere in the universe, let alone within a few light years of Earth, is so improbable as to be functionally impossible. Of course, Cameron had this advanced motion capture technology that gave him accurate rendering of the human face. The humanoid alien who is an actor with appliances on his face is a staple of space opera and even hard science fiction audiences will accept this without question. The problem is that Cameron has given us a brilliantly conceived and largely consistent ecology and a completely plausible, naturally evolved global brain and then he throws utterly impossible humanoids into the mix. Cameron may or may not have decided that he wasn’t going to worry about this. However, there is one possible explanation that is available to Cameron to explain the Na’vi if there is a sequel: the Na’vi are the product of a crash selective breeding program initiated by Pandora!

We get hints that humans have known about Pandora for a long time. We learn that Sully grew up hearing about Pandora and its legendary floating mountains and he appears to be in his early 30’s. There are some other suggestions that indicate knowledge of Pandora goes back even farther. Late 21st century explorations, starting with robotic probes and later humans, are consistent with what Cameron gives us. Neytiri tells Sully that there have been times of great trials in the past, notably five occasions when the “last shadow” flyer was tamed and ridden by heroes who united the tribes. What was going on? Perhaps Pandora was instituting a massive cull of the sentients in order to produce a more human version – a human version that would allow it to study the strange creatures that had suddenly appeared in its world.

If Pandora became aware of humans 70 or so years before the action of the movie there might be enough time to engineer human looking and behaving aboriginals if there are enough generations. One thing we don’t know about the Na’vi is their average lifespan and how long it takes them to reach breeding age. (Cameron may have offered us a clue in Grace Augustine’s photographs but unless I get the movie on Blu-ray and freeze frame the photos, I can’t say if this is the case.) In the movie we learn that the human-Na’vi hybrids grew to adulthood in their tanks over the nearly six years of the voyage from Earth. In and of itself, this tells us nothing of the average lifespan of the Na’vi – the growth period may have been a function of some process associated with making the body avatar-ready. There may have been purely logistical concerns – it’s simpler to keep the avatars in the tank rather than on life support or cryo-sleep. Still it may be a clue that Cameron even thought out this aspect of the ecology and of Pandora’s control over it.

Another look at the MacGuffin

I stated above that unobtainium was a MacGuffin. On the surface, that is exactly what it is: the thing that everybody wants – a plot contrivance that only serves to advance the plot. Typically, anything can be a MacGuffin. For example, in the noir classic, Kiss Me Deadly, the MacGuffin is a box that, when opened just a crack, emits a blinding light, accompanied by a sinister, guttural hiss. Everybody wants the box and it really doesn’t matter what’s in it. In the novel, the box contained heroin. In the movie, it was plutonium. The plot would have worked just as well with anything the audience would believe is valuable and that everybody wanted. (Note: Quintin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction, like all of Tarantino’s movies, is replete with cinematic references. It’s pretty obvious that Marcellus Wallace’s glowing attaché case is a reference – Tarantino fans would say “homage” – to Kiss Me Deadly.)

As I’ve already demonstrated, the setting of Avatar is extremely detailed and very well thought out. It should come as no surprise that unobtainium is more than a mere MacGuffin.

When I saw the previews showing the floating mountains, I strongly suspected that this substance was a room temperature superconductor (RTS). In the scene in which Grace Augustine confronts executive Parker Selfridge (Giovanni Ribisi), he says that her science project is financed by an undistinguished looking gray rock that he calls “unobtainium”. His small sample of unobtainium floats over a plate on his desk. Self-levitation! One of the key features of superconductivity! Q.E.D. Of course the stuff is valuable – that’s why the RDA corporation has established a mining operation on a hostile, inhabited moon nearly a six year starship journey from Earth.

Unobtainium may not exist on Earth but it seems to be everywhere on Pandora. The Hallelujah Mountains – the “flying” mountains – self-levitate. They clearly contain large amounts of the RTS. Even richer deposits (though it’s hard to imagine richer deposits than whole mountains of the stuff) of the RTS seem to be associated with the trees - in particular the home tree of the Na’vi tribe. This actually makes sense in terms of the role of the trees as super-neurons in Pandora’s brain. The root structure taps into the unobtainium and uses it to facilitate information/energy storage. It is the ubiquity of the RTS throughout the crust of Pandora that makes it possible to transfer information over vast distances with no energy loss. The RTS is an essential environmental element for the evolution of the global brain that is Pandora.

Jake Sully: seduced or programmed?

The similarities between Dance’s With Wolves and Avatar are, as previously stated, obvious. Cameron himself has acknowledged similarities. Both stories require that the journey of the protagonist from being a member of one culture to another is believable. Cameron gave himself a bigger challenge since Sully isn’t just joining another culture – he’s joining another species. I believe even the severest critics of Avatar would agree that Sully’s conversion works in the context of the story.

Sully’s journey from human to Na’vi begins the first time he controls his avatar. As a paraplegic whose prospects for a spinal repair are dependent upon pleasing his company superiors, suddenly inhabiting and exercising a healthy alien body is exhilarating. Sully charges out of the sealed building and into the Pandoran atmosphere – he bounds over obstacles and ends up in a garden of alien plants. He digs his alien feet into the alien soil and works it with his alien toes. Joy, bordering on ecstasy, plays across his alien but remarkably human face. Interestingly, at this moment, Sully encounters a smiling Grace Augustine in her own avatar, sporting a Stanford t-shirt. For the first time, Augustine treats him as something other than an annoying and unwelcome interloper foisted upon her by corporate politics.

The exhilaration of living in his avatar body continues on Sully’s first expedition into the Pandoran jungle, where he fills in as a door gunner on a VSTOL craft. This is the trip that leads to his first contact with Neytiri and the Na’vi. Sully is a military man and almost certainly an adrenalin junky so being accepted as a sort of apprentice Na’vi warrior is appealing. So is the chief’s daughter, who becomes his mentor-trainer. She’s human enough that being tall, blue, and with feline nose, ears, and tail simply makes her more exotically attractive. Being accepted by the Na’vi also raises Sully’s status with both Colonel Quaritch (Stephen Lang), the head of the RDA mercenary detachment, and with Selfridge. Even Grace Augustine is impressed. Sully for the first time receives a guarantee that he’ll “get his legs” when he completes his mission. Everything that Sully does in his avatar body nets him big rewards both in the human and Na’vi world.

Initially Sully see’s the Na’vi as “tree huggers” but that attitude changes over time as he starts to be accepted into the tribe. As he identifies more and more with the tribe, he experiences a growing confusion about which part of his life is “real”, as he reveals in his video log. Once he finally joins the tribe as a warrior, he is taken to the communication node where he links to Pandora and learns that the minds of the “dead” Na’vi, live on in the “tree”. After this he makes love with Neytiri and “goes native” – his conversion is complete and unwavering in all subsequent action.

I submit that there is another explanation for Sully’s total conversion that is perfectly consistent with the action, though I doubt it was intended by Cameron. When Sully links to Pandora, it programs him in much the same way it will later program animals to attack the humans. If he had divided loyalties before that moment, they are gone afterwards. Is programming necessary to explain any of Sully’s actions? Not at all. However, there is no reason to assume that Pandora is a benign god. It has its own motives and, as I’ve observed, it may well have done significant culling of the Na’vi in the past. I’m not suggesting that Pandora is the biological equivalent of Skynet but Cameron has left open the possibility of making Pandora a more significant and complex character in any sequels.

Cameron subverts his message

In Hollywood, two religions dominate: Scientology and Gaia-worshipping eco-fascism. Cameron belongs to the latter belief system. Cameron may have been captured a long time ago, though I didn’t see it in any of his movies. I’d guess that the long hiatus he took post-Titanic in which he indulged a passion for deep diving and exploration (probably awakened by making Titanic) brought him in contact with the eco-fascist ethos. Pity that Cameron didn’t spend as much time researching economics, energy, and natural resources as he did biology, when preparing the background for his narrative.

Such research could have started with economist Julian Simon (profiled here by the Cato Institute’s Stephen Moore in 1998). Simon’s most comprehensive and accessible work is The Ultimate Resource 2. The “ultimate resource” of the title is the 1.5 kilos of skull meat known as the human brain. Simon’s extensively researched book busts every myth animating eco-fascism. Cameron states “there’s not a whole lot of [nature] left”, which is patently false, as Simon shows. For example, the U.S. is more heavily forested today than it was 100 years ago. A case in point is the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), where I work. Today, Crane is nearly 100 square miles of forest, dotted with a few buildings where R&D and in-service engineering for the U.S. Navy take place. In the mid-1930’s this area was cleared farmland, with nary a tree in sight.

After Julian Simon, Cameron could have read The Skeptical Environmentalist by Bjørn Lomborg. After publication of this book, Lomborg was subjected to unremitting attack from eco-fascist zealots because he is that most evil of creatures: a heretic from the true religion. Lomborg remains an “environmentalist” (hence the title) but he rejects the dogma that has come to dominate environmentalism. Ironically, he took his first steps on the path to heresy when he attempted to debunk Simon. In looking at all of Simon’s supporting evidence, Lomborg found that it was his own position that was debunked.

Even though Cameron’s knowledge of humans and the environment is seriously deficient, he is too much of a technophile to be a true eco-fascist – one might say that he belongs to the Reform rather than the Orthodox Church of Gaia. This poses a problem for Cameron that a less meticulous movie maker would have avoided. Cameron invites us to believe that Pandora is possible, which he has done to an amazing degree by constructing a scientifically consistent ecology. He gets the behavior of RTS right and fits it into the story in an ingenious way that ties to the ecology. Even the starship is plausible insofar as it doesn’t obviously violate physics and, by implication, obeys relativity. The problem all of this creates is that it doesn’t comport with the idea of a world that is no longer green and is dying – the cautionary message Cameron puts in Sully’s mouth.

The first problem is that a civilization with starships – a “starfaring” civilization – cannot die unless it encounters a more advanced competitor that decides to eliminate it. Life that remains on Earth must perish at some point because the aging Sun will eventually kill it. More likely is that some celestial catastrophe – comet or meteor strike or cosmic ray burst - will kill everything down to or including bacteria. Gaia-worshipers celebrate an Earth without humans. They don’t even understand the full implications of their belief system. On those occasions when I’ve debated the Gaia-worshippers, I like to point out that human beings are Gaia’s nervous system – we are Gaia’s brain. Gaia evolved us for the specific purpose of saving life on Earth. We are the solution, not the problem. I said something similar in Yuri Gagarin Day!!

[C]osmic ray bursts are so common throughout the universe that they may be the best explanation for why there is no evidence of technologically advanced life besides us. Complex life (almost?) never lasts long enough to develop space travel before it is seared to extinction by lethal radiation. The animal rights loonies and eco-fascists, if they really love non-human life so much, should consider the fact that human beings really are the “paragon of animals” – only we humans can safeguard terrestrial life by spreading it throughout the solar system and beyond.

Cameron must understand at some level that a necessary component of saving life on Earth ultimately requires that humans leave the planet and take a sufficiently varied DNA library of organisms along to allow colonists to construct a terrestrial ecosphere somewhere else.

This brings us to problem number two. The power requirements to move one spacecraft over interstellar distances bespeaks such a mastery over energy production that there simply cannot be energy problems for terrestrial civilization. And the RDA starship cannot plausibly be a one-off: it is private and belongs to one corporation. Said corporation may well own several – we can reasonably expect that. But be assured that various governments around the world have even more advanced models – think of the difference between a modern cruise ship and a nuclear aircraft carrier (CVN). The energy conversion technology used in starships must be ubiquitous, ergo, there simply can’t be an energy crisis for terrestrial civilization in Avatar’s universe.

Problem number three relates to the first two in that what we see of science and technology is completely inconsistent with the neo-Malthusianism inherent in the statement about the dying Earth. Genetic engineering has advanced to such a level that human-alien hybrids are possible and yet it is impossible to save supposedly dying eco-systems? It beggars the imagination.

There is a clue that Cameron himself may not believe his own message. When Quaritch meets with Sully early on, he comments about fighting in Venezuela, describing it as bad (or tough – don’t recall the exact adjective) “bush” but nothing in comparison with Pandora. In military vernacular, “bush” would be jungle. Jungle is, by definition, “green”. Was Cameron just being sloppy? Or is “green” a relative term and “green” is slowly being eliminated on Earth though we know it still exists in Venezuela? I think Cameron meant the latter but that just creates more problems for him. If jungles still exist, expanding them becomes a much easier task. Of course, the fact remains that the natural world is not being destroyed by human beings – if anything, advanced civilization is good for “the environment” as Cameron would define the word.

Plot weaknesses or opportunities for a sequel

The implicit contradictions in the story brought about by the conflict between Cameron’s message and the technology in evidence I noted above. In this section I will enumerate explicit plot problems/holes that crop up where Cameron either fails to consider the clear implications of a plot element or decides that he’s just going to ignore them for the sake of his narrative.

In some cases, potential plot weaknesses in Avatar could actually be explained in a sequel and add more complexity to the story arc Cameron is supposedly pursuing. I will discuss those as well.

  • The low-tech military - With the exception of single-stage-to-orbit shuttles and the powered walkers, none of the equipment used by the company military is more advanced than what the U.S. military currently employs. Arguably, it is all 1970’s or 1980’s technology at best – I say this as someone with roughly twenty years experience (off and on) as a Defense contractor and (now) civil servant for the U.S. Navy. Even a military with 2009/2010 capabilities could lose once Pandora unleashed its animal hordes but why not show it? A more reasonable battle would be to show all of the humans in special VR equipment controlling an attack force composed of unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) and unmanned combat vehicles (UCVs) – early versions of these are already on the battlefield. No human would die in the battle with the Na’vi-Pandora force, though all of the remote combat vehicles would be quickly destroyed once Pandora hit with the animal shock troops. Of course, if the final battle doesn’t pit actual humans against the Na’vi, it isn’t as dramatic. It would also make it much more difficult to have a one-on-one battle between Sully and Quaritch. (Note: as I’ll discuss below, there is actually no need for any Na’vi or animals to die if RDA used non-lethal defensive technology.) So, Cameron sacrificed scientific/technological accuracy for dramatic effect. There is one possible explanation that might serve. The RDA corporation is doing security on the ultra-cheap. RDA underestimated what would be needed to deal with the threat and bought a bunch of 150+ year old war surplus equipment.

    I still question the low tech but, I’ll give Cameron this one.

  • Unobtainium mining - we know that unobtainium is a naturally occurring mineral on Pandora. Whether it is five times, ten times, or even a hundred times the going rate of Platinum in 2154 (as I discussed above), the idea of value has no meaning unless unobtainium is being shipped back to Earth. There is no economy in any sense of the word on Pandora - there are no human colonists, just a company outpost. Besides, the ubiquity of unobtainium would mean that it would be a cheap commodity in the event Pandora is colonized. As Gary Cooper observes in the Western Garden of Evil, “[I]f the earth were made of gold, men would die for a handful of dirt.” Pandora is practically made of unobtainium – it’s as common as dirt. Earth, however, has none of it. This much is obvious. What is not obvious, however, is why it is necessary to ship unobtainium back to Earth. Given the technology, how can it possibly be cheaper to ship rocks X number of light-years back to Earth than it would be to analyze samples in situ and learn how to make it? Send the information from the mineral assay – unobtainium’s composition and crystalline structure – back to Earth as a stream of photons traveling at the speed of light. Once again, it beggars the imagination to assume that something nature creates in abundance can’t be duplicated by human science. If there is no need to mine unobtainium then the entire conflict that propels the eventual clash between humans and aboriginals – actually between humans and Pandora - disappears. A “rich” deposit is no more intrinsically valuable than a rock chipped off of one of the floating mountains because either can be assayed. Every explanation I can come up with for mining the stuff makes no sense as long as it is being sent back to Earth. It is economically and scientifically absurd. There is one explanation that Cameron might be able to use in a sequel: mining unobtainium is a cover for the real mission. If unobtainium is going to be used as a raw material for a future colonization wave, it could be used to jump start technological development on Pandora. There’s no need to make the stuff, just refine what is already there. If Grace Augustine was aware mining was a cover story it would validate Sully’s communication that an unending wave of humans was in the offing. Why would there be a need for a cover story? To steal a march on potential competitors? It appears that RDA managed to obtain some sort of monopoly on exploiting Pandora. Maybe the cover story was necessary to win a contract from some governmental entity. As a plot device in Avatar 2, it might work.
  • Where are the computers? Where is the A.I.? - This problem relates to the first in the list and is, to my mind, the most serious. A “Moore generation” is the amount of time it has historically taken for integrated circuit manufacturers to double computer processor speed. That value is around two years per doubling. Concurrent with improvements in processors, massively parallel arrangements of processors plus improved algorithms increase the overall performance of computers. Currently the fastest supercomputers are capable of around 1015 operations per second. Assuming that we continue to have technological breakthroughs that allow us to sustain the current value of a Moore generation, then the increase in processor capability would be roughly 270 by the middle of the next century when the story takes place. That’s on the order of 1021 or a billion-trillion (sextillion) times current processor capabilities and that’s not even including parallel computing improvements. Lots of technical folks would argue (and I’m one of them) that we can’t maintain the pace of the doubling – that we’ll reach an inflexion point long before 140 years from now. So, let’s pick a more reasonable value and assume that we only get twenty more doublings. That’s still a million times current computing power. We should have something between “soft” and “hard” A.I., where “soft” describes computers that are semi-intelligent, semi-autonomous and “hard” describes computers that are fully self-aware. Even at the slowest possible development speed of computer and programming technology commensurate with the other technologies we do see – starships, genetic engineering, and remote bio-thought control – the human race would be on the threshold of realizing, by purely artificial means, what has evolved naturally on Pandora: a network capable of storing human minds and possibly even capable of self-awareness itself. Cameron has already told a version of that story in Terminator and Terminator 2 and probably didn’t want to deal with it here. Still, I think he should have done more to suggest that something along the lines of soft A.I. existed on Earth. The RDA outpost should have had some very sophisticated computers and robots around – write off the lack of robot warriors to bureaucratic stupidity and bean counting, which has to be a fundamental law of the universe.
  • Darwin and Drake’s Equation - If there is complex, intelligent life (two! species) on Pandora, which is a close interstellar neighbor, Bayesian reasoning would suggest a high value for the Drake Equation, which offers a probability for technological civilizations being present at any given time. A high value would mean that there are probably a fairly large number of technological civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy. In a crowded Galaxy, we can expect that contact between alien races will obey Darwinian laws. David Brin makes exactly that argument in Shouting at the Cosmos. In Brin’s view, actively broadcasting messages in hopes of making contact with alien civilizations rather than passive listening carries the risk that the race we contact, once aware of our existence, would see us as a rival to be eliminated and proceed to do so.

    Implicit in trying to contact alien intelligence are two assumptions: (1) they are benevolent and altruistic and (2) even if they aren’t, space travel over interstellar distances is so impractical as to be functionally impossible. Darwin tells us the first assumption is almost certainly wrong. A study of technologically feasible propulsion systems informs us that the second is probably wrong as well (see, for example these papers on antimatter catalyzed fission-fusion propulsion systems for extra-solar probes or VASIMR ion propulsion for an optimal Earth-Mars transit in 29 days!).

    Cameron has given us a future where (2) is wrong. Cameron also intends that we see Pandora and the Na’vi as benign – they certainly lack the technology in 2154 to be a threat. Perhaps in future episodes Cameron will offer up a “hopeful” story of Earth civilization “maturing” and become an eco-aware, benevolent and altruistic civilization because of our contact with Pandora. So, Cameron will implicitly assume that (1) is correct. That’s not the way to bet.

    Permit me to offer a modest proposal for the final two movies in a trilogy.

    Pandora, now that it has gained a huge amount of knowledge about cosmology, evolutionary theory, terrestrial biology, and human history from the mind of Grace Augustine, decides that it needs to institute a crash program to develop its own technology to deal with potential threats from Earth. Pandora can download information into the Na’vi that would give them all the basics of a PhD level education in biology and possibly secure the cooperation of the traitorous – pardon me – enlightened humans who remained behind to obtain even more information in physics and practical engineering. Using the company outpost and plentiful unobtainium to jumpstart the effort, Pandora could have its first factories up and running in a couple of years and its first space craft before the next starship from Earth shows up. The Pandora-plus-Na’vi symbiosis would have tremendous capability for expanding knowledge and technology. Eventually, Pandora could become a serious threat, with its own fleet of starships, crewed by Na’vi. The subtext would be that Pandora itself is Eden and, once it has partaken of the Tree of Knowledge (from the brains of Augustine and Sully), loses its innocence.

    The story of Pandora’s postlapsarian technological improvement program could be paralleled by events progressing on Earth. Selfridge leaves RDA and becomes a politician, warning about the Pandoran threat. A number of governments on Earth consider an aggressive Pandora a plausible worst case scenario. The solution is to send a large expedition with orders to prevent, by any means necessary, Pandora from developing starfaring technology. A genetically engineered pathogen injected into the biosphere that kills 90% of the trees would lobotomize Pandora. End of problem and no thermonuke has to be detonated. The tension comes from whether or not battle will be joined. Allow Selfridge who has been put in charge of the expedition to have a change of heart and communicate with the Pandoran force, headed by Sully. A modus vivendi is arrived at and Pandora and Earth civilization become friends and allies.

    For episode 3, the joint Pandoran-Terran fleet has to battle the evil cephalopods from the Greater Megellanic Cloud. The evil cephalopods are defeated and the Pandoran-Terran Co-Prosperity Sphere is declared, to the accompaniment of a faux-Enya ballad by James Horner. The End.

    Another possibility Cameron could consider is that there may be other human colonies that are more advanced than Earth, both in terms of technology, and in the “spiritual” way that Cameron is advocating. He introduces these advanced humans in the sequel.

    In 2000, Bill Joy wrote Why the future doesn’t need us. He argues for rigid controls over the development of genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and robots. (For a rebuttal, see Joy to the World, by Virginia Postrel. She sums up Joy’s article as “…a screed against unpredictable change, a call for a static world, and an assault on commerce and the individual desires it serves. It is the same old attack on the open society, just wrapped in cool clothes.”) In the Avatar universe, if neo-Luddism had been successful in stunting some technologies on Earth, it would explain the lack of A.I. and other technologies that are so glaringly absent in the first movie.

    One technology they didn’t block was cheap space travel. That means “misfits” can leave Earth and found their own societies elsewhere. One such group of misfits is made up of Extropians who rejected neo-Luddism. They left Earth in the middle of the 21st century and colonized Mars. Once there, they developed both hard A.I., genetic self-improvement, functional immortality, and a global network consisting of their minds linked together with each other and with a benign network intelligence, which we could call Ares. The “Martians” have effectively become a transhuman species and replicated Pandora in hardware. The Martians arrive in their own starship at the beginning of episode 2 and offer assistance to the Pandorans. They know that the next Earth expedition will consist of a fleet of starships bent on colonization of Pandora.

    The first time we see the Martians, they exit from their ship wearing a few body adornments and what appears to be iridescent body paint. If they hadn’t just debarked from a spaceship, we would think they were a group of hunter-gatherers. All are bald but otherwise look completely human. Unlike the last group, they don’t wear special breathing equipment. The Martians include adults and children of various ages as well as a number of what appear to be large dogs. No one speaks yet we quickly get the impression that they are communicating with each other in some fashion. The dogs seem to be a part of this communication and, as if on command, form a perimeter within which the Martians deploy four-legged animals that are all torso and no head. The headless animals take up station just inside the canine perimeter. When this operation is completed, the dogs, as one, wheel and rejoin the Martians.

    In short order, the skies darken with banshees while thousands of animals charge the Martians from all sides. The headless animals extrude from their backs various devices that send directed sound and microwave beams at the animals. As the beams play back and forth along the animal attack front, the animals recoil as if in intense discomfort and leave the scene just as rapidly as they came. None is killed and none is obvious injured. (Note that the directed sound weapon – the LRAD – is already old technology. Directed microwave beams are under development and close to deployment. Why didn’t RDA use such non-lethal technology against the Na’vi and the animals? Two reasons: it would make the RDA less evil and would have been devastating against the Na’vi and the animals. Pandora could never have defeated such weapons if enough were deployed.)

    In the aftermath of the attack, the Martians wait. Presently the emissaries of Pandora arrive: Sully and Neytiri. For the first time, one of the Martians speaks. The Martian explains that they have come to offer their help against the invasion from Earth but only if Pandora requests it. The Martian asks for a meeting. At this point there could be a period of trust-building before the meeting is agreed to. The Martians could interact with the Na’vi starting out in English but learning Na’vi as rapidly as it is spoken to them. Within a few minutes, all further dialogue is in the Na’vi language.

    The story could now deal with an extended period of cultural exchange between the Martians and Na’vi that would allow for a dramatic exposition of the differences and similarities between two cultures that can link minds with members of their species and with a network intelligence. The symbiotic species that evolved on Pandora meet the symbiotic species that self-evolved on Mars.

    Eventually the meeting with Pandora occurs and the Martians are taken to a communications node where they produce braided bio-ethernet cables that they link to their own heads and to the glowing branches. When the Martians link, a piece Ares they brought with them links as well - Pandora encounters one of its own kind for the first time. The natural Eden meets the artificial one.

    I’ll leave as an exercise for the writer-director how to fill in the details – to establish the conflicts and their resolutions and to arrive at the thrilling denouement accompanied by Jame’s Horner’s next Academy Award-winning song: a faux-Enya ballad.

Final thoughts

Cameron has given us a much more deeply layered story than most critics realize and, perhaps through some internal confusion, a more layered story that even he realizes. The interactions of the characters – human, Na’vi, and the global brain Pandora - are full of enough possibilities for an extended arc of stories.

It’s hard not to be captivated by the lush environment Cameron has created on Pandora but he really must resolve the human-Pandoran conflict in a satisfactory way. I’ve offered a couple of suggestions about how he might go about this, with the second being the more serious one.

This is first time I’ve ever been disappointed in a Cameron movie but I’m enough of a fan that I’m willing to give him a chance at redemption with the sequel.


Directly after I completed this review I visited an aggregator site that focuses on popular science articles from a variety of publications (for example, “National Geographic” and “Scientific American”). The site leans strongly environmentalist. Not only are there never any articles that directly question the extreme AGW position, there are frequent articles by “psychologists” that purport to analyze AGW “denialists” and explain why they suffer from cognitive dissonance. Suffice that perusing this site, I stumbled onto an article in the Christian Science Monitor titled Avatar: the real-life science behind the fantasy. It begins with this line:

The producer of “Avatar” is fond of saying that writer and director James Cameron does not write science fiction, he writes science fact.

Except for the areas I discussed above, which are either junk- or pseudo-science, I’d agree. The “Avatar” article provides a link to a book intended to be a confidential report on Pandora that has been obtained by whistleblowers/activists to use against the RDA company. The “report” is excerpted here.

When I was putting together this review I felt that I had picked up all or most of the clues Cameron placed in the movie about Pandora but I regretted there was no way I could validate my speculations. I figured at some point there would be a novelization, as there was with The Abyss (by Orson Scott Card), which would explain everything and, if I were sufficiently motivated, I could buy it in order determine how close I came. Stupid me! That was so last century. Apparently, Cameron did a lot of forward marketing, including the purloined “report” which has probably been around for a while. Now that I’m aware of it, I’m strangely disappointed – everything is explained.

In any case, the excerpts from the “report” validate nearly all of my observations about the technical details. I’ll take the key points in order.

  • Pandora is in the Alpha Centauri system - I assumed this was Alpha Centauri but didn’t stick my neck out. No credit.
  • Physical parameters of Pandora - Mostly bulls eyes here. I was right about the high tectonic activity and the high CO2 content. Lower gravity, higher atmospheric pressure, check.
  • Unobtainium - mostly right. I said it was a room temperature superconductor. Actually it is a very high temperature (up to 1500 celcius) superconductor – I’ll give myself full credit since RTS is the term for a high temperature superconductor that was current when I was a young lad. Obviously, it has remarkable properties. ‘Nuff said.
  • Suppressing unobtainium development - Apparently Cameron is going to deal with this, though he’s doing it poorly. In the “report” it says that RDA is attempting to “suppress any attempt to develop a Terran alternative to unobtainium”. If unobtainium is being used on Earth then it can be duplicated - more to the point, duplication cannot be prevented. I reiterate: any civilization with starships has sufficient energy and technology to do any materials fabrication imaginable. I did offer a way out – certain branches of science and technology are banned by neo-Luddites. Of course, Cameron is never going to go that route. I think my story of the Martians and Pandorans is a better movie.

With this new information I see the direction things are going to go: Terran dissidents on Earth and on Pandora, with the help of the Na’vi and Pandora, will fight to overthrow the evil corporations and retake the Earth. After reverses culminating in a cliff-hanger in episode 2, they will be successful in episode 3. Fade out, credit roll, accompanied by the Oscar-winning “Hymn to Gaia” by James Horner.

I told you so

October 4th, 2009

I’m back, after a long hiatus. There are a number of reasons for the gap in my postings – some political, some personal. On the political front, though I’ve considered commenting on the Obama Administration’s foreign policy at various times, I didn’t really have anything to add beyond what readers could find elsewhere.

On the personal front, I’ve had a significant change on the job/career front: I recently became a Civil Servant working for the Department of the Navy. In other words, I’ve become a bureaucrat; part of the problem; my own worst enemy – take your pick. By way of consolation, national defense generally and the navy in particular are explicitly called out in the Constitution as powers of Congress, unlike nearly every other Federal agency.

Now that Obama’s promised direct talks with Iran have begun and it has been revealed that Iran has been constructing a clandestine enrichment facility under a mountain, it’s time to post and say, “I told you so”.

Apparently, the U.S. was aware of the existence of the secret facility during the Bush Administration, yet it did not use this information to discredit the NIE and make the case that Iran’s nuke program was running at full throttle. Because of this, should Iran end up developing nuclear weapons, Bush & Co. will bear equal responsibility with the naïve and incompetent Obama Administration.

In the past 2 weeks, unofficial Obama foreign policy advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski validated another of my claims when he stated that the U.S. should actively prevent any IDF airstrike from flying through Iraqi airspace:

Q: How aggressive can Obama be in insisting to the Israelis that a military strike might be in America’s worst interest?
A: We are not exactly impotent little babies. They have to fly over our airspace in Iraq. Are we just going to sit there and watch?
Q: What if they fly over anyway?
A: Well, we have to be serious about denying them that right. That means a denial where you aren’t just saying it. If they fly over, you go up and confront them. They have the choice of turning back or not. No one wishes for this but it could be a Liberty in reverse.

Brzezinski subsequently attempted to “clarify” his comments, claiming they were misunderstood – that he meant that a tragic accident could happen. It’s true that the Liberty was a U.S. intelligence ship that the Israeli Air Force mistakenly attacked during the 6 Day War. However, Brzezinski said that the U.S. should be “serious” and “go up and confront” the Israelis. If we are not to appear like “impotent little babies” implicitly we have to be prepared to shoot their aircraft down. There is no way deliberately attacking Israeli aircraft is comparable to the Liberty incident. It makes one wonder why Brzezinski drew the comparison. There are those who claim that the U.S. and Israeli governments colluded in a cover-up of a deliberate Israeli attack – a claim about as credible as those of the 9/11 Truthers. In the context of his full statement, referring to the Liberty leads one to conclude that Brzezinski let slip what he really thinks: that Israel deliberately attacked the U.S. ship 40-odd years ago and it would be payback if we were to do the same to Israel.

Here’s what I had to day in Worst Case Obama: Part 3, posted just before the November election:

Obama is the candidate of the extreme left, which comprises a substantial group who are extremely anti-Israel. The virulence of anti-Israel rhetoric from this group rises to a level I call “proto-anti-Semitic”. Here are some examples: Israel has committed “genocide” against the Palestinians; pro-Israeli Jews are guilty of divided loyalties; American foreign policy is controlled by a Jewish cabal made up of ex-Democrats (that is, “neocons); and so on. “Proto-anti-Semitism” means the speaker is not anti-Semitic but has a grossly exaggerated view of the power, influence, and tribalism of American Jews that reinforces anti-Semitic stereotypes. Proto-anti-Semitism creates a favorable environment and cover for crypto-anti-Semitism, where the speaker is anti-Semitic but hides behind what is claimed is legitimate political discourse.

I went on to say that “…some of [Obama’s] closest foreign policy and military advisors have expressed views that put them in one or the other category (in fairness to Obama, some of these advisers were asked to resign). Even advisors who are more circumspect in their statements have a long history of being very pro-Palestinian and anti-Israeli.” One of these advisors was and is Zbigniew Brzezinski. I then said:

…For Obama, there will be no acceptance of the Israeli view that Iran is an existential threat and therefore no justification for an Israeli preemptive strike. After all, the Mullahs are reasonable and Obama can negotiate with them. Obama’s peace offensive would be derailed by any Israeli strike – even one that avoids U.S.-controlled airspace – because Iran will treat the U.S. as complicit. Unlike the Bush administration, which would, at worst, only apply some sort of political and/or economic sanctions after the fact, the Obama administration can’t permit any attack to take place under any circumstance. The only way to accomplish this is to threaten to actively defend Iran against an Israeli attack – to threaten to shoot down Israeli jets whether they overfly Iraq or not.

So far, no spokesman for the Administration has said that any attack would be shot down and, given Obama’s sagging approval ratings, it is becoming harder for such a statement to be made publically. Still, with Brzezinski essentially saying that the U.S. should be prepared to shoot down Israeli jets, it’s a good indicator of how Obama and his other foreign policy advisors probably view things.

Meanwhile, according to Jane’s (subscription required), Iran now has 8,000 centrifuges operating in the Natanz facility. This is the upper limit of my 6,000 to 8,000 threshold. Along with the potential 3,000 that could be accommodated by the 2nd facility, it means that there is almost no time left for action. Add to this, an unsubstantiated report appeared in the U.K. press that the Saudis were prepared to grant the IDF rights to use their airspace. Thus far, the Saudis have not denied this report.

I figure the Israelis are prepared to launch a full scale attack on 24 hours notice. It can’t be long now.

Maybe North Korea didn’t get it right after all

June 4th, 2009

I just came across this article by geologist Jeffrey Park in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Park says that the seismic data indicate the latest North Korean test was another fizzle, concluding the yield was “likely 4 kilotons or smaller”.

According to the author bio in the sidebar, Park seems to be qualified to opine knowledgably on the seismic data. In my previous post, I cited a Guardian article. I failed to note that article relied exclusively on a Russian source for estimates of the device’s yield. Recall that after the 2006 test, the Russians’ estimates were way above everyone else’s, calling into question the accuracy of their seismic data and/or their analysis.

If Park is right it tends to support my view that the North Koreans produced a batch of plutonium contaminated with too much Pu-240. This, I think, is the best explanation of the documented low yield back in 2006 and the (possible) low yield last month. North Korean technology is just too primitive to solve the problem they doubtless created when they tried to increase the reactor’s plutonium output through a higher burnup. Higher burnup translates into a higher percentage of Pu-240.

For now, I’ll wait to pass judgment on the success of the North Korean test until there is some agreement on the seismic data, though I’m inclined to accept Park’s estimate of 2 to 4 kilotons.

North Korea finally gets it right?

May 26th, 2009

Back in October 2006, I speculated (accurately) that North Korea’s nuke test was a “fizzle”. Yesterday, North Korea (aka the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea – DPRK) conducted another test, this time achieving a yield of aproximately 20 kilotons. As I said in the 2006 article:

North Korea has repeatedly shown itself to be technologically backward – for example, after eight years of trying, it remains unable to launch an ICBM. Arguably, 60-year-old nuclear technology is nearly as challenging as 50-year-old rocket technology. Consequently, it is extremely unlikely that North Korea would attempt anything more advanced than a 1st generation plutonium bomb along the lines of the “Fat Man” that was first tested by the U.S. in July 1945. A 1st generation device should have a nominal yield of around 20 kilotons – hence, the “dud” speculation.

It appears that North Korea has finally gotten it right.

There are no real details at this point. If we assume that the North Koreans are still relying on their existing plutonium stockpile, they’ve obviously figured out how to get around the Pu-240 problem. Even so, given the torturously slow pace of their technological advance (they still haven’t managed to successfully launch an ICBM), North Korea isn’t likely to become a threat to the U.S. for some years.

The U.S. perhaps can afford to be complacent. Japan, which is in North Korean missile range, cannot. The Japanese have “breakout” capability that would give them deliverable thermonukes in a year or so. All that is required is the exercise of political will to make it happen. Along with the SM-3 ship-launched ABM acquired from the U.S., which is carried by their home grown Aegis DDG’s, Japan has a credible missile defense. In light of the Korea’s experience with the Japan in the first half of the 20th century, Kim Jong-Il should be loath to provoke the Japanese into arming themselves with thermonukes. Yet, that is precisely what is going to happen if the diminutive dictator continues on his present course.

CSIS study: Israeli strike feasible

May 12th, 2009

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) published a study 14 March 2009 laying out an Israeli attack scenario against Iranian nuclear sites. It is very similar to my Scenario 1 from 12 February 2007, which describes a direct strike on the key Iranian nuke sites.

There are some differences between the CSIS and my scenario. Before I get into those, I’ll note several instances where the CSIS study either confuses aircraft types or numbers of aircraft. I’m doing this in order to avoid passing the confusion on to possible readers.

Throughout the CSIS study, the F-15I “Thunder” is consistently referred to as F-15E. The F-15I is essentially an F-15E with Israeli modified electronics and avionics. In fact, the CSIS study correctly shows the Israelis with 25 F-15I’s and no F-15E’s on page 54. Accordingly, I’ll assume that when the CSIS study refers to F-15E’s it really means F-15I’s. The study also states that the Israelis have 4 “B-700” tankers (p. 71). According to the sources I consulted when I put together Scenario 1, Israel had 5 KC-130H and 5 KC-707 tankers. Later that year, Jane’s gave 3 KC 130H and 4 KC-707 tankers. Global Security now also gives 4 KC-707 tankers. I therefore assume that the one reference to the B-700 really means KC-707 and is either a typo or referring to a generic Boeing aircraft in the 700 series.

There is also a bit of confusion with respect to the tanker inventory. In the mission force allocation (p. 70), the target packages require a total of 12 “KC-130” tankers. Israel has no more than 5 KC-130H’s. If for some reason the analysis is using the KC-130H as a reference tanker, it would mean that several KC-130H’s would be replaced by one KC-707 in an actual mission. It would have been helpful if this had been called out in the CSIS study.

One key difference between the CSIS study and my scenario is that CSIS posits the F-15I’s have been modified to carry two 2100kg BLU-113 bunker busters (see p.45) instead of one. Carrying only one in my scenario meant that all 25 of the F-15I’s (24 F-15I’s + 1 spare/backup) plus 22 F-16’s carrying the smaller BLU-109’s were needed to take out the two Natanz enrichment buildings. (Note that in a later posting I stated I wasn’t sure if the BLU-109 could penetrate into the building proper without “double targeting”. Double targeting entails using the first bomb to blow a crater and the second to follow immediately behind and penetrate the rest of the way.) By carrying two BLU-113’s, the CSIS study concludes that 25 F-15’s alone would be sufficient to take out the Natanz facility and might include double targeting (p. 37).

The CSIS study also adds the UF6 plant at Esfahan to the reference strike (p. 70). The CSIS study does mention the possibility of using “Buddy Refueling” to provide extra tanker capacity (p. 71), a topic I have previously discussed. (Note that the possible use of buddy refueling may also explain the 12 KC-130 tankers listed on page 70. Several F-16’s with buddy packs would equal one KC-130H.) The total number of aircraft used for 3 targets (Natanz, Arak, and Esfahan) in the CSIS study is 89 (80 combat plus 9 tankers). My strike gave 145 (133 combat plus 2 jammers and 10 tankers) for 2 targets (Natanz and Arak). Assuming only 25 F-15I’s are needed for Natanz, this would reduce the overall numbers in my direct attack scenario to 120. This is not a huge disagreement and reflects my conservative approach.

I agree with CSIS that the use of conventional ballistic missile and cruise missile assets by Israel should be contemplated, even though I didn’t include them in my Scenario 1.

The CSIS study provides considerable background on enrichment, centrifuge technology, and Separative Work Units – topics I have also addressed on this blog - and has come to similar conclusions about Iranian bomb making capabilities. For example, we both calculate that at full capacity, Natanz will produce at least 500 kg/yr of weapons grade, high enriched uranium (HEU) resulting in a couple of dozen or so weapons. The table on page 109 showing Separative Work requirements for different starting enrichments illustrates the non-linear relationship between Separative Work and enrichment level. Unfortunately, because there is no analysis of its significance, the import of this information is easy to miss. I discussed the strategic ramifications of the Iranian low enriched uranium (LEU) stockpile in some depth in my last posting.

CSIS did not consider a no flyover scenario, although I did. Instead, CSIS assumed one of three more or less direct routes – their “central route” over Jordan and Iraq being my Scenario 1. CSIS analyzed both the political and operational costs of the three routes and concluded a northern route over Syria and southern Turkey was optimal. I considered and rejected this route figuring that operational considerations outweighed every other once violation of neutral airspace was settled upon. This is not to say that CSIS was wrong to select this route. If Israel has an understanding with the Turks, the northern route would become preferable.

A possible clue to Israeli attack plans is to examine what is currently being discussed in the Israeli media. Haaretz, no friend of either Likud or PM Benjamin Netanyahu, editorialized about an impending attack and the political groundwork being laid for it by Netanyahu. This, according to Haaretz, is the principle purpose of Netanyahu’s upcoming trip to the US:

Israel will find it difficult to attack Iran alone without a ‘green light’ from America, even if it is only implied and if America ostensibly turns a blind eye. But once the moment of truth arrives, it is doubtful Obama would give the order to take down the Israeli planes heading to Iran - or for that matter to declare an end of aid to Israel or to sever relations. Obviously, the U.S. will want to remain somewhat distanced from any operation that is launched, so as not to be vulnerable to the anticipated Iranian response. But its strong commitment to Israeli security will not allow America to forcibly prevent a military operation designed to prevent a second Holocaust. That is the message Netanyahu will try to implant in the minds of the members of Congress.

I consider it very significant that the possibility Obama might give a “take down” or shoot down order is being seriously discussed in Israel and in the Israeli newspaper that is arguably the friendliest to the new administration. (This is a subject I discussed back in 31 October 2008, just before the election.) Netanyahu is wise to marshal as much political support in Congress as possible to elevate the political cost to the Obama administration of any attempt to “forcibly prevent” an Israeli attack.

An Obama-ordered shoot down would only be politically viable if the Israeli attack overflew Iraqi territory. It is worth considering that Netanyahu is deliberately misleading both the Obama administration and Iran as to the axis of the attack. If the assumption being made by all parties is that the attack is the CSIS “central route” (my direct attack), whereas the real attack follows a different route, this will enhance surprise when the attack is actually launched.

Given the monetary and personnel resources available to CSIS relative to my own, I’m pleased our conclusions were so close. (If anyone from CSIS happens on my site, contact me. For a suitable salary increase I’d be happy to work for you folks.)

When will Israel attack?

May 1st, 2009

Since my last posting in January, the political situation in Israel has clarified: 2nd place finisher Likud and party leader Benjamin Netanyahu are now in charge. There have been some other changes as well. True to Obama’s campaign statements indicating he intended to limit/reduce/eliminate US ballistic missile defense programs, his administration is planning to eliminate US involvement in the joint US-Israeli Arrow 3 program, freeze U.S. land-based ABM deployment, and halt development of the Airborne Laser system, effectively killing it. In and of themselves, these decisions don’t affect the probable Israeli attack timetable because the ABM systems at issue would likely be deployed sometime after Iran crossed the nuclear threshold. I mention the Obama administration’s policy on ballistic missile defense here only because I may want to address it in a future post. The whole issue becomes somewhat less urgent if Israel defangs Iran. When we might expect the defanging to occur is the topic I’m going to discuss in the balance of this article.

In some of my earliest posts, I stated that Iran conceivably could have its first nuke (a one megaton thermonuke) in late 2007. As we know, that did not happen chiefly because the schedule for the expansion of the Natanz facility has “slipped to the right”. Recall that in Is there a “threshold”?, written 16 May 2007, I gave 6,000 to 8,000 as the largest number of operating centrifuges that would be tolerated before preemption became a necessity. I further stated that I would choose the lower number if it were my decision. I concluded by saying, “If the U.S. doesn’t attack by that point, it’s not going to attack. That’s when Israel will step up to the plate if it hasn’t already done so.”

We now have good information from a variety of sources that Iran will have 6,000 centrifuges installed and running by this summer and, most importantly, that Iran had, at the end of last year, produced enough U-235 at a 3.8% enrichment level to make at least one bomb. This latter fact is significant for reasons the popular media and the Obama administration have neglected to discuss.

To understand, let’s make use of this handy-dandy Separative Work Calculator from Urenco, the large uranium enrichment company based in Europe.

Using a neutron reflector (like beryllium) along with implosion, a much smaller amount of U-235 is needed for a critical mass than with a gun design and no neutron reflector. This is less than 20 kg, at high enrichment levels. At least this amount is known to be present in the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) “product” that Iran has stockpiled. Note that 3.8% U-235 cannot be fashioned into a bomb - at least 20% U-235 is needed. For practical reasons the enrichment level for “weapons grade” uranium is normally in the 90% range.

Iran has been enriching uranium for a couple of years to get to this point, adding centrifuge capacity as it has gone along. One might be inclined to believe that there is still a large margin of safety based upon the assumption that, since it took this long to get to 3.8%, it must require a significant amount of additional time/effort to get to 90%+. It doesn’t work that way – the relationship is logarithmic, not linear. To illustrate, let’s go to the calculator.

First a caveat: I’m not a weaponeer so I don’t know the exact amounts of U-235 that would be needed for a 1 megaton thermonuke (see here, which includes my argument why Iran will go directly to a one megaton device). I do know that, in addition to the U-235 for the trigger, there would also be U-235 needed to initiate the fusion reaction in the lithium-6 deuteride. I’m going to use 30 kg of 95% enriched U-235 as a good ballpark value for the total required.

The units in the calculator are metric tonnes (1,000 kg = 1 metric tonne), so we enter the values accordingly. For “Feed Assay” enter 0.711 (the percentage of U-235 in natural uranium); for “Product Assay” enter 95; for tails enter 0.3; for product enter 0.03 (30 kg = 0.03 metric tonnes). Hit the “Calculate” button. You get 6.14424 tSW. We could also express this as 6144.24 kg SW. The “Feed” is 6.91241 tonnes of natural uranium (the box immediately below is the amount of UF6 gas). Now, clear out the entries. For “Feed Assay” enter 0.711 again; for “Product Assay” enter 3.8; for tails enter 0.3. This time, enter the 6.91241 we got above in the “Feed” box for tU. Hit the “Calculate” button. We get 3.97689 tSW. (Incidentally, if you want to check this with another calculator, you can plug the appropriate values into the FAS Separative Work Calculator – the results will be the same to 4 decimal places).

What does all of this mean? To get from natural uranium to 95% enriched, bomb grade uranium (known as high enriched uranium – HEU) takes 6.14424 tSW. To take the same amount of natural uranium to 3.8% enrichment (known as low enriched uranium – LEU) requires 3.97689 tSW. Most of the work (around 64%) expended is to get from 0.711% to 3.8%. With 6,000 or so centrifuges running at max efficiency, it should take only a few weeks to go from 3.8% to 95%.

As I write this, Iran’s “public” nuclear program is subject to IAEA monitoring. So long as the centrifuge operation and LEU UF6 stockpile are compliant with IAEA safeguards, there is no “immediate” threat, or so the argument against preemption goes. Militating against this is the speed with which the first bomb can be produced – a few weeks if the Natanz facility is converted to bomb making. A few weeks would still offer time to issue an ultimatum and then attack. However, as Iranian enrichment capacity increases, along with the stock of LEU, the Israeli reaction time decreases. This is the basic calculus behind my original threshold argument. Israel cannot put itself into a position where it has little time and no margin for error when it attacks. Added to this problem is that if Iran has a small clandestine facility somewhere, it could begin to divert the LEU and initiate bomb production. It would be suicidal folly for the Israeli government to depend on the competence of the IAEA to catch Iranian diversion. No doubt Israel relies heavily on human intelligence (humint) on the Iranian program gathered by the Mossad – the best intel agency in the world. Still, the difficulty of monitoring what the Iranians are doing, even throwing in spy satellite sweeps, increases exponentially as the Iranian program expands.

It is the inexorable mathematics of Separative Work and the enrichment process that is driving Israeli planning now. Doubtless, the Israeli attack plan is fully developed and could be set in motion in 24 hours or less. The Israelis must immediately respond to any LEU diversion they detect, irrespective of what the IAEA or international community may say. As stated above, because of the reduced amount of Separative Work required to produce a bomb from the LEU, small, widely dispersed cascades that have thus far gone undetected could readily complete the process.

The lower limit of the threshold will be reached in at most a couple of months. Based upon this, my prediction is that Israel will attack some time this summer at the latest. Israel could potentially delay a short period beyond that, with an emphasis on the word “short”. The larger the stockpile grows, even if the number of centrifuges added at Natanz is halted, the bigger the problem for Israel.

The optimal time to attack in order to maximize the Israeli advantages is 48 hours either side of New Moon at 0200 local. The months of June through September are most likely with the odds of an Israeli preempt increasing through the summer.

Though I expect a night attack, I wouldn’t rule out a daylight strike. In fact, if I were the head of the IDF, I’d strongly advise it. One of the most important resources available to the Iranians is the experience their engineers and technicians have gained over the years the nuclear program has been in operation. It is, therefore, an unfortunate necessity to kill as many of these people as possible. A daylight attack will find the maximum number of engineers and technicians at work. In addition to the enrichment facility at Natanz and the heavy water plant at Arak (see Scenario 1), cruise missiles, possibly augmented by SpecOps, should hit research centers where scientists would be located. Like the Allied raid against the Peenemunde V-2 facility in 1943 which sought to kill von Braun and his team of rocket scientists, the Iranian nuclear scientists are prime targets.

The Israelis have shown remarkable restraint throughout their history, so I doubt they will choose my approach. But, be assured, attack they will.

NY Times: U.S. rejected aid for Israeli strike

January 14th, 2009

On 10 January, the New York Times posted U.S. Rejected Aid for Israeli Raid on Iranian Nuclear Site, which claims that the U.S. refused to supply Israel with advanced bunker busters, refueling aircraft, or to allow overflights of Iraq for an attack on Iran. Nothing in this article should surprise readers of this blog. In Playing Chicken: how Iran might win a nuclear war back in September 2005, I said that U.S. sale of bunker busters and specialized, long-range aircraft (the F-16I and F-15I) to Israel were part of a U.S. bluff:

[T]he Iranians could reasonably expect that the U.S. would keep Israel in check – in other words, if the U.S. doesn’t act, Israel probably won’t either. The U.S. is obviously playing its version of the game: the sale of equipment to Israel that would be needed for preemption (for example, bunker busters) is rather like throwing the steering wheel out of the car window. “We have no control over the Israelis, and they’ve demonstrated in the past they will preempt,” is the message we’re trying to send. The Iranians – rightly in my opinion – believe this is a bluff.

No U.S. administration was or is going to actively cooperate with Israel in attacking Iran. That’s one of the main reasons I figured that the U.S. had to carry out the attack.

In my first Israeli attack scenario, I analyzed an Israeli attack taking the direct route over Iraq. This scenario was predicated on the U.S. not taking active steps to prevent an overflight – that is, shoot down Israeli aircraft. I said that the Israelis would only inform the U.S. once the attack was underway. Nearly all of the risk in this operation is tied to uncertainties about possible U.S reactions, principally political but some military risks as well. The second scenario posited an attack that stays in international airspace until crossing the Iraqi border. The distance involved is so great and tanker aircraft so limited that only the Natanz site could be hit by a small force. Even if this attack were effective, it would leave the Arak heavy water and plutonium production facilities untouched. The fact that the political cost for Israel is nearly as great as scenario 1, coupled with the limited objectives and tight margins of scenario 2, make it unlikely to be chosen, in my view.

I maintain that if Netanyahu and Likud win, the odds are good that Israel will attack, probably by the direct route though a slightly longer route over Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States can’t be ruled out. Over the weekend, I had an opportunity to put my money where my mouth is – a buddy offered to bet me that Israel would not attack. I wasn’t confident enough to take the bet. For one thing, although Likud probably will win it isn’t a certainty and, were Likud to lose, I’m not particularly confident that the Kadima government will buck the U.S. and attack. (I’ll still stick with the prediction I made on this blog.) I was, however, willing to offer another bet: if the principal Iranian nuclear facilities are not attacked, there will be a nuclear exchange between Israel and Iran before the end of 2012.

I’ve been consistent in my analysis that Iran is either not deterrable or will be too aggressive, making it likely Iran will blunder into a nuke war. There is a third possibility I’ve long considered though haven’t heretofore discussed: a nuclear Iran may undergo a political upheaval or revolution and launch its nukes in a final, convulsive Götterdämmerung. Back in March 2005 in Preemptive war against Iran, I said:

From the perspective of the mullahs, Western culture is a mortal threat. Against the freedom, affluence, and vitality of the West, the mullahs can only offer a decadent medievalism that was on the way out 500 years ago. The mullahs realize that without nukes, Iran will be unable to maintain its closed society and the theocracy will collapse of its own weight.

If Iran can be deprived of nukes and otherwise contained, the theocracy will collapse. But what happens if Iran gets its nukes and then the inevitable collapse occurs? The Mullahs are never going to step down peacefully – the theocracy’s janissaries, the fanatical Revolutionary Guard, will fight to the last man. The Revolutionary Guard will also control the Iranian nuclear arsenal when it comes into existence because only the Guard will be deemed politically reliable. It is naïve to believe that, as their last act, the keepers of the nuclear fire will not unleash it on the infidels.

Will Israel’s new Arrow 3, the U.S. Navy’s SM-3, and the Air Force’s Airborne Laser anti-ballistic missile systems be able to shoot down an Iranian strike? The potential effectiveness of the various ABM systems must figure in the Iranian strategic calculus when planning its attack. Talking all of the political, theological, economic, and technological factors into account, I give the odds of a nuclear exchange before 1 January 2013 as 50-50.

Is Gaza attack the “January Surprise”?

January 9th, 2009

Israel is now several days in to a major operation intended to attrition Hamas and degrade its ability to launch indiscriminate rocket attacks against Israeli civilians. In November, just before Obama won, I predicted that the Kadima-led Israeli government would launch an attack on Iran in the month before the February 10 parliamentary elections. I argued that this ”January Surprise” would, among other things, help Kadima and party leader Tzipi Livni against the favored Likud Party and Benjamin Netanyahu. Given the timing of the attack on Hamas, has it taken the place of a January attack on Iran? My answer: probably.

Since I made my prediction, Obama has selected a foreign policy team which is much better than any I (or probably anyone else) could have anticipated. By retaining Robert Gates as Defense Secretary and putting Hillary Clinton at the head of the State Department, we can dismiss my postulated worst case foreign policy scenario from further consideration. With few exceptions, pragmatists will be running U.S. foreign policy in the Obama administration, which ironically means that Obama’s first term really will be something like a Bush third.

From the Israeli perspective, U.S. foreign policy isn’t going to change that much, though that is not necessarily an appealing prospect. As I wrote back in January, 2007, “With Gates in the administration, everyone surrounding Bush now appears to be counseling that the only option in dealing with Iran is diplomatic because the military option isn’t feasible…”. The Obama administration is not going to be hostile to Israel but it is also not likely to do anything to denuclearize Iran. In fact, there are indications that the Obama administration will adopt a policy first articulated by Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary campaign.

According to a report in Haaretz, the U.S. will propose to extend its nuclear umbrella over Israel and massively retaliate in the event of an Iranian nuclear attack. Such a policy would only be contemplated if the standard deterrent theory view has prevailed: that Iran is deterrable. The Haaretz article agrees:

But America’s nuclear guarantee to Israel could also be interpreted as a sign the U.S. believes Iran will eventually acquire nuclear arms. Secretary of state-designate Hillary Clinton had raised the idea of a nuclear guarantee to Israel during her campaign for the Democratic Party’s nomination for the presidency. During a debate with Obama in April, Clinton said that Israel and Arab countries must be given “deterrent backing.” She added, “Iran must know that an attack on Israel will draw a massive response.

Actually, Hillary’s exact words were that the U.S. would to “obliterate Iran”. That statement, though bracing at the time, was and remains strategically wrongheaded. As I’ve previously discussed, a nuclear Iran will either attack Israel out of religious zealotry or, more likely, provoke a nuclear exchange through hyperaggressiveness. Even if a war with Israel is somehow avoided, Iran will merely shift its attention to its ultimate adversary: the U.S. It will develop ICBM’s and play chicken some time in Obama’s second term.

Whether or not the U.S. deterrent strategy is valid (see, for example, my counterargument to preempting against Iran), it is unlikely that it will ever be acceptable to Israel. To quote a famous U.S. politician: “[I]f you’ve gone through the Holocaust, then that does not offer the same sense of confidence and security as the idea that the Jewish people can take care of themselves no matter what happens.” The famous U.S. politician was Barack Obama. He offered this insight during the primary campaign.

Israel developed an independent nuclear deterrent precisely because history has shown that Jews can ultimately only depend on themselves for defense. Obama’s statement suggested that he understood this. Why then would his administration float the idea that the Israelis should become totally dependent on the U.S. deterrent? I prefer not to speculate.

What is obvious is the U.S. is not going to attack. Therefore, Israel must. The absolute last chance for Israel to denuclearize Iran is this year. The only question remaining is when. The answer is, sometime after the general election and the formation of a new government. The “January Surprise” attack on Iran is not going to happen. The reason for this is purely political, not military.

The Israeli Air Force has ample resources to carry out the reference strike on Iran even as it conducts operations in Gaza. The aircraft that would be used in the Iran strike are special purpose and are almost certainly not being used in the Gaza operation. In fact, the Gaza operation could provide a degree of operational cover: no one is going to expect Israel to launch an air strike on Iran in the midst of a major operation by the IDF in Gaza.

The only resource that Israel has in short supply is political credit. The U.S. is the lone support for Israel’s Gaza campaign. If U.S.-Israeli relations are going to be strained by an Israeli attack on Iran, it is best that this happen after the Gaza campaign is over and U.S. support is less critical. Right or wrong, I expect this is the thinking of the current government.

So, Gaza is the January Surprise. Politically, it’s at best a damp squib.

My final prediction: Likud will emerge from the 10 February elections as the leading vote getter and Benjamin Netanyahu will form a government. Shortly thereafter, Israel will attack Iran.

Most likely scenario for President Obama: hemmed in by bureaucrats and Blue Dogs

November 16th, 2008

Having covered the low probability worst case scenarios for an Obama administration, I now want to make some general observations about the most likely course for President-Elect Obama and Congressional Democrats. Previously, I said:

Obama’s true genius is in self-promotion and the acquisition of power. He is exactly the sort of person the Framers had in mind when they put so many checks and balances into the Constitution. Today, most of those checks – those negative feedbacks – have been eliminated. Obama will have more scope for a malign ambition that any President in U.S. history.

I stand by that statement. However, the fact that a President wields more power than ever before doesn’t mean Obama has been given a carte blanche.

Some of the checks and balances still exist: Congress retains a huge amount of power but it is rooted in regional, state, and demographic constituencies. Those constituencies didn’t suddenly change in 2006, when the Democrats took control of both houses of Congress. Many of the Republicans unseated in 2006 and this year were replaced with centrists or with conservative “Blue Dog” Democrats. In the House especially, party discipline carries only so far with such individuals – they ultimately have to answer to the voters in their respective Districts. Can the Blue Dogs be stampeded into supporting a radical agenda? Sure, as I’ve suggested in my worst case scenarios. If the economic situation worsens it can be exploited by the left-wing Democratic leadership. Crisis always creates a bias in favor of expanded government power. Absent a complete collapse, however, the Democratic centrists are going to be hesitant to sign on to sweeping changes their constituents aren’t going to like. As a number of analyses show (see, for example, A sweeping rejection of President Bush by David Boaz of the Cato Institute), the electoral center that Obama won voted for more fiscal responsibility and less foreign interventionism – not a “New ‘New Deal’”. Expect Obama’s ambitions, whether malign or not, to be significantly thwarted by members of his own party.

Aside from the lack of ideological purity within the ruling Democratic Party there is a second potential impediment to radical change: the permanent federal bureaucracy.

Back in the good old days, the federal bureaucracy was tiny and largely comprised of members of the victorious party. When the party took power, it rewarded party stalwarts with positions in the government. This system was called the patronage or “spoils” system. All this eventually changed after the assassination of James A Garfield when his successor, Chester A. Arthur, and Congress established the merit-based, non-partisan Civil Service. My view is this was a disaster for the Republic (here is a good, libertarian-oriented historical overview of how the civil service came to be) because the bureaucracy, though nominally part of the Executive Branch, promulgates regulations having the force of law, thus operating as its own Legislative Branch. Over time the various components of the federal bureaucracy have become primarily devoted to self-preservation and “rent seeking”. Today, the U.S. Government really is the unelected bureaucracy.

Ironically, although the permanent bureaucracy is a threat to freedom and antithetical to the whole idea of limited government, it can act as a check on the unbridled exercise of power by a President. A new President is going to be viewed as a caretaker – he or she is going to be around at most 8 years. High level bureaucrats are people who have been members of the organization for most if not all of their professional lives, which will have encompassed several administrations. They have no allegiance to the new President even if they generally share the President’s ideology. First and foremost, their allegiance is to the bureaucracy itself.

President Obama can and will appoint radicals to head key agencies. For example, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr’s name as been bruited about as a possible EPA head. RFK Jr. is to Environmentalism as Torquemada was to Catholicism. Even with someone like RKF Jr. in charge, the EPA will remain composed of various factions that consume a considerable amount of energy in political infighting. Attending this will be all manner of systemic inefficiencies that have developed over a period of decades. The result is a level of organizational inertia that will resist any attempt to rapidly change direction or focus. Assuming he is a skilled administrator and remains as EPA head long enough, RFK Jr. could eventually get the agency to become more radical but even he is still unlikely to turn it into the office of the Grand Environmental Inquisitor, much as he might like to.

Obama will depend on the bureaucracies in the Executive Branch to implement as best they can the policies he and Congress cook up. Federal agencies are probably the least efficient of any bureaucracy so their best is going to be pretty bad. Implementation will be haphazard and schedules will “move to the right”.

A final consideration is that the Obama administration will eventually offend one or more high level bureaucratic factions at some point. In Deep Throat revealed – and what it reveals, I said of “Deep Throat” (W. Mark Felt), “Hell hath no fury like a bureaucrat scorned.” At a minimum, bureaucrats who develop enmity toward the Obama administration will leak information intended to damage it and the President. Perhaps the Obama people will be able to minimize the political and PR sequelae. The press will also tend to protect him. However, old patterns will eventually assert themselves – the press simply can’t pass up a good story, whether true or not - and Obama will find his policies and competence questioned. Keeping his approval numbers high will tend constrain his worst impulses and he will be forced to be more centrist than he ever intended.

The January Surprise

November 2nd, 2008

There is ample evidence that the Israeli government and Israelis in general believe that an Obama administration will be much more inclined toward Israel’s enemies than any previous U.S. administration. There is also ample evidence that the Israeli government and the Bush administration have major disagreements over the imminence of the Iranian threat. If a Bush administration would react unfavorably to an Israeli preempt, how is a distinctly unfriendly (to Israel) Obama administration going to react? As I discussed in my previous article it is not unthinkable that the Obama administration would threaten to actively prevent an Israeli attack on Iran that would interfere with direct U.S.-Iran peace talks.

The Israeli planners will likely assign a low probability to an actively hostile U.S. administration – it is a “worst case” after all. Even without a worst case scenario, the Israelis are very close to the “drop dead date” for preemption. Rather than deal with the uncertainties of an Obama administration, the prudent course is to attack before the Obama administration can establish new policies and communicate them to the Israelis. The Israelis can therefore be expected to follow the old adage that it is better to ask forgiveness than seek permission.

There is another very important factor that would exist even if John McCain were elected: the Israeli parliamentary elections are going to be held in early February. The Kadima Party, now headed by Tzipi Livni, faces repudiation by the voters – the Likud Party, headed by former PM Benjamin Netanyahu is expected to pick up a large number of seats in the Knesset. Moreover, Kadima is a fusion party. Though most of its members were formerly with Likud, many prominent former members of Labor also joined the Party. Kadima is very much a creature of Ariel Sharon, who created the Party after he left Likud, and now that he is out of the picture there is a legitimate question as to whether or not Kadima can remain intact. Benjamin Netanyahu has made it very clear that if he and Likud head the government, there will be no “Second Holocaust” from an Iranian nuclear attack. Livni and Kadima are perceived as more dovish, relatively speaking. This would be a problem apart from the corruption of former Kadima head Ehud Omert, which forced his resignation and is the proximate cause of the early elections.

For all of the foregoing reasons, Israel will attack before the February elections. The only question that remains is when. There are two options: during the lame-duck term of George W. Bush or at the beginning of Barack Obama’s term.

Bush is very well liked in Israel and is widely viewed as a friend. There is still a remote possibility that Bush will launch air strikes so the Israelis will probably give him at least through November. Assuming, as I do, that there is still some flex in the Israeli attack schedule, I am guessing that the Israelis won’t attack while Bush is still President. That moves D-Day to early in the Obama Presidency. For domestic political purposes, a few weeks before the February elections – sometime in late January – would be optimal once it has been decided to attack. Think of it as being the Israeli political equivalent of the American “October Surprise”.

The temptation for a Kadima-led government to attack in January would exist if McCain were elected but I don’t believe it would be acted upon. McCain is known and respected – Israelis trust that he will take action against Iran or, at least, will not prevent the Israelis from doing so.

So, I am formally predicting that Israel will launch a preemptive attack on Iran that takes the most expeditious route – that is, the attack will go through Iraqi airspace. It will take place in the latter part of January, while the Obama administration is organizing itself. Were I planning the Israeli strike, in order to eliminate any worst case scenario in which the Obama administration interferes with it, I’d launch the attack so that the first wave crosses over into Iraqi airspace at 17:01 GMT on 20 January. This would be at the same time Obama is taking his Oath of Office. No one in the U.S. government will be in a position to react to this “crisis” and the Israelis can expect no interference from U.S. force.

Obama is going to be very displeased that his peace plans for the Mideast are dashed – he’ll be personally affronted if the Israelis attack during his Inauguration, thus sending the message that they don’t trust him. It doesn’t really matter because Obama is going to be drug, kicking and screaming, into fighting a war with Iran in the Persian Gulf. The ironic aspect is that the vast military apparatus he will head will be able to kick major butt – Obama may well come out of a U.S.-Iran military engagement with enhanced stature because he will have been forced into doing the right thing.

Worst case Obama: Part 3

October 31st, 2008

It is four days before the general election and an Obama victory appears all but certain. One issue that has arisen over the past few days derives from comments by running mate Joe Biden that were taped at a private event. Biden said that Obama would be “tested” by some sort of foreign crisis within the first 6 months of his administration and suggested that his way of dealing with it might not be understood or popular initially. He called on followers to stick with Obama when that happened. Because Biden is wont to deliver all manner of non sequiturs when speaking, perhaps his statement isn’t worth serious consideration. However, since Biden was so pointed as to the time frame and even the public reaction, inquiring as to what he might have in mind is appropriate. The McCain-Palin campaign certainly thinks so, judging from an ad that has appeared using audio clips of Biden’s statements.

Commentators who have speculated on what the crisis might be have included the Mideast and Iran as possibilities but none has considered this as anything other than some sort of challenge from Iran. I think there is an obvious possibility that everyone is missing. Before I get to that, let me offer some background.

I’ve written extensively about the Iranian nuclear program and possible actions the U.S. or Israel might take to deal with it. Readers are encouraged to search this blog, which delves into possibilities few have discussed or that weren’t being discussed at the time I posted the article. One early article in the latter category argued that the U.S. would strongly resist any attempt by the Israelis to launch their own preemptive attack.

In Throwing out the steering wheel I said:

There is no way that an Israeli attack can take place without the U.S. condoning it. Israeli aircraft would have to pass through airspace controlled by the U.S. Thus, the universal view in the Islamic world will be that the Israelis are acting as henchmen for the U.S. – doing America’s dirty work. Since this would be a political disaster of epic proportions, I have always assumed that the U.S. would never permit it to take place – that, in fact, the U.S. will attack.

[Emphasis added.] (Note also that I later analyzed Israeli attack scenarios – see Scenario 1 and Scenario 2. In the latter I concluded that an Israeli attack that didn’t overfly airspace under U.S. control was feasible.)

The quoted article was neither the first nor the only one where I asserted that the U.S. would not allow Israel to preempt against Iran. Yet, in none of those articles did I ever explicitly state what the U.S. would do to prevent the Israelis from attacking or what the U.S. would do if Israel attacked despite our disapproval. I’ll do that now.

I have always assumed that when U.S. and Israeli officials discuss an Israeli preemption, the U.S. representative states in the strongest possible language that such at attack would gravely affect U.S.-Israeli relations. The “grave” effects would include various forms of political and economic sanctions, such as cutting off sales of weapons and spare parts or cancellation of joint U.S.-Israeli weapons programs among others. So, “prevention” is achieved by the threat of sanctions and a cooling of relations. I expect the frequency of such discussions has increased over the past year or so as Iran approaches the “threshold” of nuclear capability (see, for example, Is there a “threshold”?). There is little doubt the Israelis have made clear to the U.S. they view Iran as an “existential threat” and that, irrespective of the consequences for future U.S.-Israeli relations, they will attack at some point if the U.S. doesn’t. The U.S. understands and appreciates this, and there the matter rests.

We’ve reached the point where, despite his statements that he wouldn’t leave Iran as a problem for the next President, it is very unlikely that Bush will act. Although we can’t completely rule out an aerial campaign starting in late November, Bush has probably decided that Iran is far enough from weapons capability that the next President can handle the problem. Bush is expecting history to vindicate him on Iraq and he’s not going to risk his legacy by giving his successor a new war to worry about on Inauguration Day.

In the extremely unlikely event that McCain is the guy taking the Oath of Office on 20 January, we can be confident that he will launch air strikes against the Iranian nuclear infrastructure at some point if diplomatic means fail. Obama’s statements that a nuclear Iran is unacceptable or that use of force can’t be ruled out are not, however, credible.

Obama is the candidate of the extreme left, which comprises a substantial group who are extremely anti-Israel. The virulence of anti-Israel rhetoric from this group rises to a level I call “proto-anti-Semitic”. Here are some examples: Israel has committed “genocide” against the Palestinians; pro-Israeli Jews are guilty of divided loyalties; American foreign policy is controlled by a Jewish cabal made up of ex-Democrats (that is, “neocons); and so on. “Proto-anti-Semitism” means the speaker is not anti-Semitic but has a grossly exaggerated view of the power, influence, and tribalism of American Jews that reinforces anti-Semitic stereotypes. Proto-anti-Semitism creates a favorable environment and cover for crypto-anti-Semitism, where the speaker is anti-Semitic but hides behind what is claimed is legitimate political discourse.

Though Obama has recently articulated the mainstream American view of Israel as a firm and trusted ally, there is pretty good evidence that Obama said what he really thinks about Israel when he was at a private gathering for Rashid Khalidi in 2003. The L.A. Times obtained a video of this event and used some quotes from speakers on the video for an article written several months back. An inside source says that the video includes comments from Obama, one of which is the statement that Israel is guilty of “genocide” against the Palestinians. This, it is claimed, is the reason that the L.A. Times doesn’t quote Obama and refuses to release a transcript.

That Obama might have said this in an unguarded moment is quite believable. He has had long associations – friendships, in fact – with proto- or crypto-anti-Semites. Moreover, some of his closest foreign policy and military advisors have expressed views that put them in one or the other category (in fairness to Obama, some of these advisers were asked to resign). Even advisors who are more circumspect in their statements have a long history of being very pro-Palestinian and anti-Israeli.

Ultimately, whether or not Obama actually said that Israel is guilty of genocide (or secretly believes it), given the foreign policy team he has assembled, Obama can be expected to head the most anti-Israel administration in U.S. history. Obama expects to be successful in negotiations with Iran precisely because he will “understand” their position and acknowledge many of their grievances against Israel. For Obama, there will be no acceptance of the Israeli view that Iran is an existential threat and therefore no justification for an Israeli preemptive strike. After all, the Mullahs are reasonable and Obama can negotiate with them. Obama’s peace offensive would be derailed by any Israeli strike – even one that avoids U.S.-controlled airspace – because Iran will treat the U.S. as complicit. Unlike the Bush administration, which would, at worst, only apply some sort of political and/or economic sanctions after the fact, the Obama administration can’t permit any attack to take place under any circumstance. The only way to accomplish this is to threaten to actively defend Iran against an Israeli attack – to threaten to shoot down Israeli jets whether they overfly Iraq or not.

Such an unprecedented act by a U.S. administration would be very unpopular and the Obama administration would not make the threat against Israel public. That won’t make any difference – Israeli officials are guaranteed to leak it.

The six month time frame fits in very well with this scenario. Obama and his crew will be sticking with the flawed NIE assessment on Iran. Israel won’t. Israel has indicated publically that it is close to attacking and privately may have given something close to a drop dead date - late Spring or early Summer 2009 would be a good bet. It can be assumed that either candidate intelligence briefings or briefings Biden may have received by virtue of his chairing the Senate Foreign Relations Committee will have provided this information. Israel will have a nuclear capability threshold in mind, even if the U.S. doesn’t.

Once the U.S. threat is leaked, what then? Obama will have a political crisis on his hands. How will it play out? Obama cannot afford to back down. He’ll have to publically acknowledge that he has given shoot down orders in the event of an Israeli attack and he’ll have to stick by it. Would Israel test him? I’d guess the answer is no.

How would Congressional Democrats react to Obama’s approach? Would they require a reciprocal U.S. guarantee to Israel in the event Iran were to launch a nuclear attack? It’s hard to say. However, if Obama does prevent an Israeli attack and does enter into negotiations, Iran will get its nukes. Expect a rapid “breakout” and Iran fitting a half-dozen or so nukes on ballistic missiles. At that point we move into the sorts of nuclear scenarios I’ve discussed previously on this blog.

Given that Iran should probably have a dozen or more thermonuke-tipped ICBM’s sometime during a 2nd Obama term (should he be reelected) and that Obama and the Democrats have stated they want to eliminate ballistic missile defense, we might even get to witness the Iranian “chicken” scenario”.

Worst case Obama: a follow-up

October 24th, 2008

In my previous posting, I discussed why Obama and the Democrats might want to bring back the military draft. There was a public reason that would be offered but, behind it, there would be the intent to make the self-selected military organization more politically reliable. A few days later, and to my great surprise, I came across this piece on “the corner”, National Review Online’s blog. The article quotes Obama on the military draft:

And if you go to small towns, throughout the Midwest or the Southwest or the South, every town has tons of young people who are serving in Iraq and Afghanistan. That’s not always the case in other parts of the country, in more urban centers. And I think it’s important for the president to say, this is an important obligation. If we are going into war, then all of us go, not just some.”

Obama correctly states that the people fighting are disproportionately from the small towns in flyover country - the red states. They aren’t from the urban areas. When Charles Rangel was advocating bringing back the draft a few years ago, he argued that people of color were disproportionately the ones fighting and dying. This was totally wrong. (Either Rangel was speaking out of ignorance or he was lying. As someone who has followed Rangel’s career over the years, I’d incline toward the latter view.) Note that Obama, unlike Rangel, gets it right. As with Obama’s statement to “Joe the Plumber”, I think Obama let his mask slip – he really is contemplating the need to create a politically reliable military.

In the previous post I said the following:

Do I think my worst case scenario will come to pass? Probably not – that’s why it is a “worst case” - but it is more likely than most people realize. The thing to keep in mind is that the unstated reasons for the policies I’ve mentioned need not be in the minds of most or even any of the people who enact them, including Obama, who is neither particularly smart nor any sort of strategic thinker.

I am retracting that last statement or, at least, modifying it. Obama is an ideologue – a Marxist radical – and I maintain that he is grotesquely ignorant of economics and foreign policy. However, he may well be a consummate political strategist. Consider that no one in modern U.S. history has been as signally unqualified to hold high office as Obama, yet he has risen faster than nearly every other Presidential aspirant (Teddy Roosevelt’s rise may be comparable). At the very least, Obama’s ascendancy bespeaks a high degree of political cunning.

Obama’s true genius is in self-promotion and the acquisition of power. He is exactly the sort of person the Framers had in mind when they put so many checks and balances into the Constitution. Today, most of those checks – those negative feedbacks – have been eliminated. Obama will have more scope for a malign ambition that any President in U.S. history.

Be afraid.

President Obama: Worst Case Scenarios

October 19th, 2008

I never thought I’d find myself writing that I expect Barack Obama to be elected President but, unless his slip about “spreading the wealth” causes voters to realize that he is a thoroughgoing Marxist masquerading as a center-leftist, that is what is going to happen. Already, some commentators are beginning to contemplate what an Obama Presidency aligned with a Democratic Congress could mean. The Wall Street Journal opines in A Liberal Supermajority that profound changes of the New Deal or Great Society variety could be in the offing. Indeed. The article frets about a “filibuster-proof” Senate but it fails to understand that the filibuster is no longer a reliable check on the majority Party.

Back in 2005, I criticized the GOP for “strategic ineptitude” when it proposed the “nuclear” or “constitutional” option to eliminate judicial filibusters. Quoting from my conclusion:

The Democrats wanted to eliminate the filibuster in 1995 before it became a useful tool for them. Now that the GOP has shown how easy it would be to change the Senate rules, the filibuster has become a dead man walking that can be executed anytime a simple majority of Senators has the political will to do it. By not following through the GOP has invited the Democrats to eliminate the filibuster when it will favor them.”

In fact, if the Democrats have 50 Senators (plus Joe Biden for a tie-break) to change the rules and eliminate the filibuster rule then they can do so. Moreover, they need not limit it to judicial appointments.

Eliminating the filibuster brings on all of the dire consequences listed in the WSJ article but the article only scratches the surface of what is possible. It is probably the case that most of the proposals would pass constitutional muster given stare decisis and three generations of leftward drift in constitutional jurisprudence. However, I think it is possible that the so-called Fairness Doctrine might no longer find favor with the 4 conservative justices plus semi-conservative Anthony Kennedy. No worries. Obama & Co. merely resurrect FDR’s Court packing idea.

The Constitution doesn’t specify a number of Supreme Court Justices. Article III, in fact, only requires that a Supreme Court be created. (The composition, organization, and even the existence of lower Courts are completely at the discretion of Congress.) Accordingly, President Obama and the Democrats could decide to add 4 Justices. These 4 would be in their mid-to-late 30’s and the most radical, living-document ideologues available in left-wing academia. Unconstrained by the ridiculous doctrine of stare decisis (I happen to agree about stare decisis), they can overturn Heller and any other troublesome impediment to our Glorious Leader’s vision.

Obviously, if there is sufficient public outcry, these things won’t happen. However, if Obama and the Democrats are given what appears to be a mandate for change, expect that it will be exploited. The Democratic leadership of Congress is very left-wing so everything will hinge on the ideological composition of the House and Senate Democrats – especially the latter – as well as the power of the Democratic leadership. Exploiting economic fears of the general public can make it much easier to achieve pliancy from the blue dogs so don’t underestimate what is possible.

We already know that Obama’s vision includes things like compulsory service. Any argument for compulsory non-military service would apply to military service for reasons of fairness and equity, if nothing else. The system would probably allow citizens to choose between military or peaceful domestic service. Charles Rangel and other Democrats have been pushing for a military draft for years so it already has support. The unstated reason for bringing back the draft is that the volunteer Army is ideologically conservative and combat units are disproportionately white and from “red states”. An organization that overwhelmingly votes Republican and probably takes its oath to defend the Constitution seriously might take action against a Marxist putsch and, therefore, has to be neutered.

Assuring a permanent Democratic-socialist majority would also entail rigid control of the internet. Hillary and others have tried to do this before on the pretext of protecting minors from violence and porn. The new Supreme Court will let nearly any regulation of internet speech stand and that will make an enhanced version of campaign finance regulation that applies to the internet easy to enact.

Of course, at any point, a couple of million dedicated citizens could go to D.C., filling the streets and shutting down the federal government by peaceful means. My view is that the citizenry is far too decadent to do anything so the radical changes I’ve posited will not be effectively resisted when peaceful means would suffice. No, the people most likely to fill the streets are the “worst [who] are full of passionate intensity” – the Marxist and eco-fascist zealots.

Madison said, “Oppressors can tyrannize only when they achieve a standing army, an enslaved press, and a disarmed populace.” The press is largely enslaved (if that’s the term for willing tools) already and Barack & Co. can complete the process as indicated above. The standing army exists but, like the press, can be made politically reliable or, at least, no threat to the government. That leaves the armed populace. If I am right that a worst case scenario doesn’t initially generate massive peaceful demonstrations, what is the likelihood that people will actually risk their lives when the disarming process starts?

Do I think my worst case scenario will come to pass? Probably not – that’s why it is a “worst case” - but it is more likely than most people realize. The thing to keep in mind is that the unstated reasons for the policies I’ve mentioned need not be in the minds of most or even any of the people who enact them, including Obama, who is neither particularly smart nor any sort of strategic thinker. As with any other system, a feature in a political system that serves one purpose can have other purposes as well.

Anyone who has been paying attention should be aware that Barack Obama is a radical Marxist with a hypertrophied ego. He could easily become the thing the Founders most feared: a cult-of-personality leader and a Caesar - a U.S. version of Hugo Chavez. The only question that remains is will he be given the power?

general name of ramipril nizoral dandruff shampoo amitriptyline xenical no prescription lips like morphine lyrics prescription steroids what is pravastatin diovan hct side effects aciphex rabeprazole ephedrine trazodone valium diazepam buy acyclovir online buy oxycontin no prescription description triphasil what is avapro valtrex valacyclovir evoxac tablets zestril oral levitra order fosamax patent expiration side effects of lasix prescription valium facts on steroids what is spironolactone zyban quit smoking generic sarafemselsun blue cyclobenzaprine 10mg tiazac side effects bactroban clarinex buy metrogel vaginal cream sildenafil generic stopping prempro androgenic steroids vasotec side effects fluconazole no prescriptionflumadine evista drug klonopin more drug uses buspar anxiety vicodin withdrawl xanax buy generic for flonase prednisone oral lipitor generic drug test vicodin klonopin without prescription allegra vs clarinex side effects of kenalog valacyclovir with no prescription tricor buy buy valacyclovir what is lexapro buy morphine without a prescriptionmotrin cipro buy desloratadine online tramadol pharmacy actonel long term effects discount xenical flomax medication phenergan dosage vaniqa lowest price cheap lipitor ecstasy effects order flonase diazepam valium buy metforminmethamphetamine propecia buy online cheap nexium carisoprodol online soma propecia reviews albuterol atrovent generic zoloft buy valtrex propecia loss phendimetrazine side effects vaniqa online without prescriptionvardenafil carisoprodol no prescription buy oxazepam tramadol ultram ultracet drug oxycodone no prescription evoxac more drug uses amitriptyline overdose levaquin online steroids effects prilosec informationprinivil side effects for flomax keppra oral lipitor side effects cheapest ultram altace dosing lexapro withdrawal symptoms sildenafil oralsingulair diprolene generic actos lawsuits buy hydrocodone without prescription levaquin antibiotic propoxyphene dosage prinivil erectile buy vicodin online without prescription allergic reaction to biaxin how to make mescaline ketamine hydrochloride pravachol drug cyanocobalamin sarafem oral about naproxen generic for flomax sumycin 500mg microzide side effects nasonex information buspar medicine levaquin tablet suprax antibotic macrobid doses discount zocorzoloft mircette online ramipril oral adipex p order metrogel online colchicine adipex weight loss diet fluconazole more drug uses antivert nizoral without prescription buy hydrochlorothiazidehydrocodone prilosec generic adderall online without prescription ultracet prescription no prescription propecia prilosec nexium how does phentermine work flonase side effects pioglitazone hydrochloride definition prozac what is rabeprazole sodium prozac overdose is tramadol a narcotic ultram 50mg cheap adipex protonix more drug interactions after tamoxifentamsulosin tramadol 50mg levaquin 500mg cheap generic valium buy condylox purchase soma online buy lasix cialis viagra fexofenadine peyronies flovent side effects adipex alternatives buy generic didrex no prescription generic lamisil side effects of amoxicillin norvasc problems how to make hashish what is glyburide actonel side effects history of penicillin rsd and nifedipine flumadine 100mg medicine what is tetracycline side effects of lamisil buy nordette birth control amoxycillin discount lamisil no prescription buy nexium online softtabs phentermine for sale morphine sulphate order nardil from europe buy motrin suppositories cheap eunlose cheap sibutramine hashish oil zovirax pregnancy selsun buy phendimetrazine diet pills xanax overdose tetracycline side effects generic mircette buy carisoprodol diazepam online soma rosiglitazone maleate flextra pregnancy buy imitrex ecstasy buy nardil online vicodin purchase what is supraxsymmetrel hydrocodone apap prozac fluoxetine atenolol 25mg information lexapro and weight gain treating vicodin withdrawl zanaflex pills methylphenidate abuse generic vaniqa valtrex 500mg discovery penicillin propecia order cyclobenzaprine abuse buy bontril compare cialis levitra viagra buspar dosage buy ativan carisoprodol rx buy protonix tamiflu buy order vaniqa cheap buy online vicodin what is cyanocobalamin buy hydrocodone over night cod prescription drug flomax klonopin withdrawal viagra levitra cialis tramadol no prescription uses for temovate medicinetenuate cheap zyban ovral birth control generic vicoprofen atrovent nasal spray generic lorazepamlorcet dosage for triphasil prevacid for infants plavix more drug side effects terazosin more drug side effects generic propecia sale tramadol buy phendimetrazine without a prescriptionphenergan viagra for woman rx adipex risperdal depression pharmacy online phentermine order didrex cod famvir tablets advair diskus aldara ulcer steroids sports order tamiflu online vicodin withdrawal symptom what is lotrel metformin and pregnancy ritalin alternatives seroquel and alcohol trazodone pills xenical weight loss vicodin overdose tenuate dospan watson omeprazole more drug interactionsopium buy aldara tadalis tadalafil nexium medication nexium ingredient meclizine hydrochloride buy ritalin online prozac effects valium addiction generic sumatriptan morphine pump fioricet migraine amoxycillin plus buy injectable anabolic steroids vaniqa online pharmacy lotensin dosage yellow xanax bars lortab abuse tramadol sale cialis levitra vardenafil steroids in football tetracycline antibiotic trimox oral side effects of fosamax propranolol 10mg ambien imitrex statdose mescaline facts no prescription tamiflu generic diovan generic ultracet flumadine side effects retin a gel plavix buy what is rohypnol famvir 500 mg gemfibrozil oral buy ambien overnight dangers of steroids captopril tadalafil overnight no prescription oxycontinpantoprazole tramadol hydrochloride atenolol side effects buy nizoral tablets no prescription fda warning actonel generic valtrex propecia review buy metrogel vaginal fluoxetine and pregnancy ditropan alternatives online order ativan growing marijuana norvasc more drug side effects cheap phentermine free shipping generic ultram pharmacy xenical online diazepam temovate shampoo and demodex buy zestoretic online generic flexeril ultram withdrawal symptoms serzone sequel cheap birth control triphasil buy cetirizine bontril diet pills lescol medication generic miacalcin alprazolam cheap buy hyzaar without a prescription famvir dosage buy proctocort proctocort suppository amphetamines paxil more drug side effects singulair side effects avandia lawsuit side effects of ativan herbal adipex order soma carisoprodol pravachol more drug side effects buy tenuate dospan on line phentermine remeron side effects flomax used for effects of opium lotrisone lotion buy sibutramine hydrochloric lipitor side effect lotensin side effects drug aciphex ultram no prescription lipitor buy lipitor cheap tenuate no rx remeron withdrawal side effects naproxen 500mg estradiol clomid xenical diet pills side effects of effexor buy bontril online side effects of nardil miralax for constipation no perscription phendimetrazine pepcid chewable buy vicodin without prescription no prescription tenuate order alprazolam no prescription what is folic acid for amaryl buy xanax on line purchase tramadol macrobid side effects buy patanol buy tylenol what is promethazine used for folic acid for preemies phenergan during pregnancyphentermine lexapro and pregnancy relafen with vicodin adverse effects what is tretinoin yasmin pills ultram addiction lotrel generic symmetrel cheap penicillin reaction buy losartan terbinafine hcl klonopin side effects side effects of pravachol buy fluoxetine without a prescription st johns wort pravachol effexor xr order tramadol online sibutramine without prescriptionsildenafil citrate search for fioricet buy triamterene without prescription online what are steroids alprazolam sale side effects of premarin celebrex dosage buy valium cheap steroids tretinoin gel atarax 30mg child prednisone without prescription protonix side effects the drug keflex amphetamine pepcid shelf life premarin buy side effect of pravachol aciphex tabs diclofenac potassium xanax bars phentermine order buy neurontin atenolol reactions buy cephalexin spironolactone acne nasonex no prescription diethylpropion 25mg potatoes not prozac cheap tamsulosin hgh flomax sibutramine 15 mg evista is ativan addictive triphasil tabs nasonex side effects flomax tamsulosin albuterol child dosage prescription tramadol fluconazole tablet paroxetine benzos imitrex buy onlineionamin famvir more drug side effects what is proscar nortriptyline for chronic pain cyanocobalamin buy what is butalbital cheap renova without a prescription ibuprofen overdose vermox no prescription glucophage oral paxil quitting soma watson sildenafil cheap fosamax danger ranitidine hcl zyprexa side effects generic for plavix metformin side effects aldara cream results flomax cr side effects of nifedipinenizoral nifedipine oral xenical without prescription zestril without prescription purchase vicodin online no prescription carisoprodol clonazepam anti anxiety tramadol oral xanax for sale fluconazole cheapest price celexa online pharmacy generic aciphex vioxx buywellbutrin viagra canadavicodin nasacort aq side effects alprazolam xanax synthroid hair loss coreg tamsulosin purchase fioricet online weight loss while on lexapro lortab addiction buy diethylpropion tenuate discount antabuse side effects effexor overdose buy fluconazole tylenol recall side effects of triamterene oxazepam on drug screen hydrocodone without prescription tenuate diet pill pictures of ketamine nizoral ketoconazole cheap xenical purchase tramadol online ambien and memory loss lamisil cream flonase on line mircette without a prescription from us pharmacy adipex diet pill injecting steroids flexeril side effects actonel evista mdma drug side effects of risperdal what is tetracycline used for renova buy levoxyl and weight loss what is keflex buy phentermine online generic zyprexa purchase skelaxin online prozac more drug uses hydrocodone and pregnancyhyzaar side effects of isosorbide mononitrate sumatriptan apotex valtrex during pregnancy xalatan generic flonase in pregnancy nicotrol buy celexa and acne generic for xalatan cialis uk what are anabolic steroids buspirone buspar purchase hydrocodone oxycodone drug test flexeril drug cheap no prescription viagra sarafem anxiety fluconazole overnight delivery zovirax prescription heroin addict estradiol cream side effects of flonase side affects of nasonex nexium price cyclobenzaprine hci drug test psilocybin effects of methamphetamine paroxetine withdrawal symptoms temazepam dosage what is skelaxin order ambien online without prescription buy adipex without a prescription what is terazosin buy cheap propecia what is estradiol orlistat no prescription phendimetrazine no prescription buy medrol no prescription oxycontin pain relief side effects pantoprazole side effects what is prednisone adderall tamiflu generic lotrisone more drug uses tretinoin cream accupril vaniqa prices online prescription tamiflu trazodone desyrel depo medrol lorazepam alcohol serzone increased energy vicodin withdrawal symptoms cheap prozac genarit norvasc tramadol more drug side effects altace generic trimox presciptionstriphasil proctocream hc viagra softtabs 100mg ionamin purchase buy tadalafil isosorbide side effectspotassium k dur online pepcid side effects fulvicin fish flomax more drug interactions buy phencyclidinephendimetrazine buy detrol about xenical valtrex without prescription vicodin without a prescription cheapest phentermine online imitrex coupon buy atorvastatin neurontin oral opium poppies oxycodone pills avandia mdl pioglitazone effect vicodin no rx allegra clarinex tylenol with codeine canadaultracet what is lanoxin combivent coupon generic oxycodone azmacort side effects ingredients of phentermine versus adipex plendil medicine generic coreg naltrexone implants how to make heroin chemistry of steroids flonase ingredients buy sildenafil citrate cyclobenzaprine effects order meridia online tazorac cream side effects of flomax buy captopril cheapest india purchase xenical tamiflu relenza serzone lawsuits tetracycline without prescription fluoxetine oral oxycodone withdrawal no prescription lorazepam buy fioricet with codeine preven antibacteriano buy cheap soma online side effects of klonopin famvir oral augmentin online pharmacy skelaxin drug information acyclovir side effects propecia price ramipril in mexico gemfibrozil 600 mg paxil cr without prescriptionpcp valium vicodin klonopin dosages tretinoin for melasma tussionex buy onlinetylenol adipex cod mircette pill klonopin online ortho cyclen description of lorazepam xanax without a prescription buy flonase cheap meridia ultravate drug aciphex rebate natural testosterone clopidogrel what is oxycodone clopidogrel buy buy carisoprodol psilocybin mushroom spores synthroid dosage cheap adipex without a prescription mircette birth control pills clomiphene citrate phendimetrazine 35mg history of steroids promethazine buy phendimetrazine online pharmacy methylprednisolone acetate viagra erections where to buy the cheapest lescol drug adipex aldara effects side meridia generic adipex cheapest price denavir cream nifedipine xl mmxfey softtabs cialis purchase tamiflu fluoxetine capsules reactions to amoxycillin depo medrol injection tadalafil cod tylenol side effects buy generic vicodin flonase vs nasacort medical marijuana furosemide prescription keflex oral free viagra sample prozac nation vaniqa medicine azithromycin and child hearing loss buy glipizide cheap no prescription nicotrol inhalers amoxicillin and elderly alendronate fosamax ciprofloxacin hydrochloride buy valium on line albuterol azithromycin alcohol phencyclidine effects lexapro weight gain toprol medicine selsun blue whiteheads tylenol overdose liquid propecia buy provigil and online pharmacyprozac skelaxin 800 mg side effects of augmentin zithromax azithromycin aciphex nexium vs what is famvir buy folic buy hydrocodone with overnight delivery actonel jaw bone buy oxycodone clonazepam biaxin no rx neurontin for anxiety nicotrol patches generic lotensin medical acyclovir information on tramadol tussionex no prescription symptoms fioricet withdrawal estradiol infertility canadian generic renova nifedipine side effects ultracet online sildenafil citrate generic serzone withdrawal symptoms medication cheap propeciapropoxyphene generic for singulair tramadol buy buy lasix quick delivery carisoprodol xr lotrisone manufacturer compazine buy viagra tamsulosin singulair medication tramadol on line direction flonase ativan lawsuits ativan usage fulvicin retail phenergan overdose fluconazole for dogs atarax dosage lipitor and grapefruit phencyclidine hydrochloride plendil prescription heroin addicts flextra projecten kidney infection macrobid lorazepam withdrawals buy celexa hydrocodone information alendronate sodium nexium sleepy what is a fioricet ritalin online protopic for alopecia areata ionamin without a prescription fosamax oral retin micro famciclovir famvir actos side effects cialis generic levitra viagra side effects of neurontin lisinopril buy folic acid pregnancy buy generic cipro children motrin oxycontin cost buy tramadol online cod what is amoxil purchase hydrocodone online lortab no prescription what is patanol paroxetine hcl oral oxycodone 5mg tadalafil softtabs health suite how to make ghb cephalaxin capsules generic propranololproscar online pharmacy valium prednisone tablets furosemide no prescription nicotine gum hashish making glyburide metformin perscription evoxac purchase steroids no prescription renova side effects evista what is vicoprofen order soma online propecia baldness buy levitra protopic and vitiligo buy zyban roxicet liquid cialis cost meridia diet pills tamoxifen side effects what is macrobid nasonex commercial fioricet online no prescription keflex more drug side effects prozac buy online bontril purchase acetaminophen side effects prevacid side effects ultram online prednisone dosage klonopin dosage ordering codeine promethazine discount xanax buy fexofenadinefinasteride ativan and alcohol cheap sibutramine pills furosemide buy cialis for order does paxil cause weight loss klonopin information propoxyphene oral myth of soma cartia buy xanax without a prescription oxycodone hcl buying oxycodone without prescription buy clonazepam without prescription pravachol medication elavil usa pharmacy diuretics diazepam tamiflu online prescription meridia side effects prempro side effects viagra online discount order levitra online side effects of levitra paxil and pregnancy protonix pantoprazoleparoxetine flexeril metabolism zocor generic lanoxin toxicity propecia pharmacy vermox overnight fedx actos diabetes prinivil tablet propecia forum adderall overdose serzone works for me heroin overdose buy xanax overnight pepcid tablets cheap generic vicodin pregancy acyclovir effects of vicodin vicoprofen without perscriptionvioxx klonopin cod motrin side effects buy vaniqa online no prescription xanax abuse what is generic for pravacholpravastatin adderall abuse sibutramine more drug interactions generic nasonex levothroid without prescription levitra and cialis and viagra buy viagra butalbital no prescription generic zanaflex ritalin vs provigil facts on ecstasy retin a side effects symmetrel amantadine hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy rohypnol effects zyban side effects meridia information buy atarax paroxetine suicidal what is phenergan online pharmacy no prescription proscar buy pediatric zithromax tobradex cream coreg 25mg where can i buy amphetamine bontril buy veetids purchase valium tramadol overnight buy viagra alternative roxicet pictures triamterene mexico cheapest xenical side effects of serevent acyclovir buy cipro with overnight shipping lorcet without rx hydrocodone vicodin generic klonopin pantoprazole label carton nicotrol gum soma price cyclessa tobradex and alcohol elavil dosage pravachol bontril aceon tramadol more drug uses premarin and weight gain buy cod tramadol how to help preven anorexia mometasone elocon compare adipex prices buspar cephalexin 500mg butalbital headache alprazolam dogs hydrocodone picture pepcid oral cyclobenzaprine flexeril lanoxin side effects hydrocodone on line didrex without prescription purchase tenuate free samples of levitra ibuprofen aspirin lasix oral cheap zanaflex buy ultracet lexapro more drug side effects side effects of monopril trial pack levitra tamoxifen citrate phentermine and glucophage ultram 50 mg pepcid famotidine smoke flexeril viagra side effects buy adderall pills generic ambien online snorting klonopin premarin without a prescription female testosterone keflex antibiotic clomid success rates isosorbide dinitrate mdma for salemeclizine sarafem side effects what is seroquel ativan withdrawal child taking lisinopril ranitidine drug zyprexa insulin ativan vs xanax atenolol dog steroids prednisone withdrawal symptoms atrovent dosage generic valium online omeprazole overdose nortriptyline hydrochloride oxycontin abuse ambien withdrawal side effect loratadine buy alendronate and breast calcification cheap orlistat vaniqa reviews generic pantoprazole ionamin phentermine anne preven marijuana growing flovent hfa fioricet more drug uses oxycontin for sale buying estradiol propecia cost online triphasil terbinafine no prescription rohypnol buy fioricet abuse soma pills nordette birth control pill generic for altace levitra generic cialis adipex success stories vicoprofen withdrawal steroids pictures alprazolam no prescription amaryl purchase selsun blue shampoo ibuprofen warnings about lorazepam soma buy avandia generic ultravate cream keflex dosage ultram sale discount valtrex finasteride tablet acyclovir prescription pcp informationpenicillin fosamax plus side effects of miacalcin mircette birth control coumadin buy aricept facts prevacid vs nexiumpreven women on steroids 5 mg clarinex lasts how long phentermine pill affect plavix side atarax for anxiety buy cheap lescollevaquin aciphex dosage buy propranolol without prescription what is pantoprazole cialis dosage flexeril online what is lorazepam online pharmacy ceftin buy metrogel with no prescription withdrawal symptoms of prednisone effects of bontril plendil generic roxicet percocet phendimetrazine prescription celecoxib buy order detrol generic plavix premarin no prescription what is relafen estradiol side effects tadalafil generic phendimetrazine cheap cheapest viagra phendimetrazine buy online pharmacy adderall nardil without prescription buy levaquin triamterene oral use for synalar medication online pharmacy vicodin levothroid overdose propoxyphene darvocet medrol dose pak furosemide side affects cheap phentermine 37 5mg online recepten oxazepam kenalog lotion orlistat oral valium genericvalporic acid drug spironolactone metoprolol side effects heroin addiction pepcid asian alcohol enzyme what is propoxyphene n norvasc side effect what is lamisil flexeril medicine fioricet codeine lorazepam withdrawal program premarin cream ativan data plavix generic synthroid lawsuittadalafil buy phentermine on line what is tobradextoprol elidel lortab online tussionex with codeine flextra caps pills soma pharmacy butorphanol side effects naprosyn more drug uses arava side effects levaquin alcohol vermox tablets fioricet side effects acyclovir suppression hydrocodone cod prozac and breastfeeding nexium side affects oxycodone vs hydrocodone side effects of depakote order vicodin lescol buy cheap alprazolam no perscription side effects of levothroid buy fluoxetine online ativan addiction ramipril 10mg elocon ointment oxycodone dosage seroquel abuse skelaxin oral anusol buy nizoral tablet depot naltrexone xanax no rx price of nasonex zovirax pills what is butalbital used for macrobid more drug side effects kenalog injection paxil side affects ultram tramadol buying ultram buy amitriptyline what is toprol flonase online diclofenac buy zithromax with free shipping temazepam more drug side effects buy amoxicillin proscar 5mg biaxin xl buy amaryl buy prevacid trimox picture generic zyrtec clomid and endometriosis antibiotic keflex side effects of actos antibiotic trimox buy retin a online tazorac reviews cheapest phentermine no prescription xanax prozac side effects pepcid during pregnancy what is metformin inderal propranolol fluoxetine pillsfolic acid zyloprim drug tenuate diet pills buy lamisil valium for sale metformin and pcos plendil medication hydrochlorothiazide information xalatan side effects discount prescriptions canada valacyclovir serevent inhaler buying finasteride punchline for rabeprazole biaxin antibiotic tramadol hcl side effects buy orlistat premarin pills snorting zoloft discreet online antabuse protonix generic ortho evra roxicet pill how to grow marijuana keppra to treat depression losartan potasico effects of prozac trimox amoxicillin neurontin alcohol terbinafine and pregnancy ultraviolet of allopurinol drug fioricet tazorac buy zyloprim tablets rabeprazole drug orlistat xenical alternative viagra allegra and aciphex interaction making ghb soma naprosyn order relenza no prescription naprosyn side effects levitra cialis viagra what is zyloprim celebrex medicine side effects of ultram xenical orlistat zocor more drug side effects metformin lawsuit xanax medication ionamin no prior prescription roxicet side effects cisternogram paxil lexapro and alcohol oxycodone side effects meridia 10mg keppra 500mg phencyclidine picture valtrex online zithromax online buy fulvicin tadalafil price softtabs cialis diethylpropion order vicoprofen online imiquimod aldara drug famvir biaxin generic renova bulex intravenous pantoprazole guidelines carisoprodol online pharmacy drug information intraocular kenalogkeppra online tramadol buy serzonesibutramine vicodin drug test viagra sales order bontril overnight no prescription doxazosin detrol drug valium lorazepam addiction buy generic valium online soma infospironolactone reasons to not use miacalcin bontril no prescription esgic genericesomeprazole glipizide oral buspar withdrawal antivert for kids flonase generic effects of lsdmacrobid adipex effects on adhd klonopin oral prescription actonel adderall and acne fioricet pharmacy fioricet online pharmacy adderall prescription loss propecia butalbital cod tiazac medication active ingredients in adipex tamiflu with no prescription prempro lawsuits antibiotic suprax what is methylprednisolone amitriptyline for sleeping buy vicodin on line buy didrex online levitra generic fulvicin dose generic patanol acetaminophen 325 mg aldara side effects diprolene buy drug pepcid buy cialis histex side affectshydrochlorothiazide famvir coupons didrex georgia low estradiol allergy claritin information on naproxennardil avapro coupon pepcid complete tobradex lawsuit online valium accupril side cialis uk suppliers about flexeril metabolism microzide buy propecia discount order phentermine online flomax without prescription buy oxycodone online nicotrol inhaler tamiflu side effects order diazepam nexium side effect review of tamoxifen buy zyprexa anabolic steroids from mexico buy ionamin online plavix aspirin online pharmacy gemfibrozil compazine side effects tamiflu from canadatamoxifen antibiotic veetids diazepam 5mg robaxim and relafen buy medrol without prescription synthroid generic bontril online pharmacy famvir vs valtrex buy temazepam without prescription drug keflex meclizine hcl lortab cod butalbital discount morphine pill norvasc side affects withdrawal sertraline how to make lsd liquid hydrocodone lorazepam withdrawal generic name of singulairskelaxin buy hydrocodone cod lamisil generic claritin coupon norco prisonnordette cozaar medication intensifies oxazepam order fioricet finasteride generic buy alprazolam without rx ativan overdose does valacyclovir require prescription discount phendimetrazine side effects of tramadol temazepam for sale oxycodone apap lorazepam pregnancy tamsulosin classification side effects of prednisone pcp effects cheap ultram proctocort supp norvasc medication synthroid weight loss buy adipex discretely discounted adipex cefzil antibiotic online levothroid ultracet tablets serzone settlements fosamax buyfulvicin order tamiflu cream verapamil soma records fluoxetine prescription buy valacyclovir uk make ghb fioricet drug meridia diet lamisil side effects vicodin pills retin a melanexmeridia buy xenical cheap ketamine side effects norvasc 10mg medroxyprogesterone more drug uses levaquin reaction nexium generic lowest prices for cialis free imitrex nexium coupon xanax prescriptions viagra discount online celexa no prescription ambien online without prescription side effects of the drug nexium antibiotic penicillin free viagra effexor side effects buy ortho tricyclen snorting xanax yasmin birth control buy fioricet w codeine paroxetine side effects generic dovonex buy morphine order tramadol lo ovral birth control side effects of flexeril penicillin injection provigil more drug uses buy tadalafil where flextra buy famvir side effects buy generic sertraline how to make rohypnol buy rabeprazole sodium soma no prescription adipex cheap vicodin generic compare cialis levitra order retin a temazepam side effects soma babes biaxin high blood pressure pregnancy motrin what is temovate pioglitazone drug purchase fioricet valtrex side effects vicodin information premarin alternatives nicotrol patch temazepam tablets no prescription adipex buy generic ultram adderall addiction dangers of plendil buy liquid pepcid buying anabolic steroids hydrochlorothiazide oral order steroids generic remeronrenova buy evoxac valium without a prescription levoxyl blood pressure fioricet oral purchase levitra macrobid for sinus infectionmarijuana what is pravachol for online zanaflex adderall buy online pharmacy flonase seroquel news side effects of azithromycin methylphenidate without a prescription nasonex spray alphagan and eye pain valium buy generic phendimetrazine cheap 37 5 phentermine viagra softtabs melttabssoma soma 350mg paxil settlement buy generic triphasil levoxyl generic flovent more drug side effects cheap sildenafil citrate lortab withdrawal glyburide oral picture of valacyclovir buy temazepam generic wellbutrin buy mircette no prescriptionisosorbide mononitrate nexium esomeprazole ritalin abuse restoril epilepsy buy oxycontin without prescription flextra ds medication bactroban nasal buy elidel valium overdose tadalafil 20mg prempro lawsuit hydrocodone buy no prescrition flonaseflovent avandia rosiglitazone xanax and serapax alprazolam without perscription buy alphagan levaquin antibiotics vicodin abuse side effects of naprosyn side effects of levaquin pharmacy online flexeril viagra prescription prilosec side affects how to use steroids discount online phentermine effects of steroids lexapro oral diclofenac sodium klonopin and pregnancy what is plavix marijuana plants amoxicillin side effects lorazepam effects buy clonidine microzide company dosages tadalafil cialis oxycontin without prescription ordering vaniqa online cheap lexapro tadalafil search order temazepamtemovate buy triphasil no prescription hydrocodone bitartrate buy benicar buspirone 5mg anger and keppra phentermine purchase histex recall prescription ionamin ibuprofen buyimitrex principio attivo kenalog singulair drug buy klonopin propecia prescription ketamine drug xanax online pharmacy propranolol buy buy zanaflex online buy alprazolam cheap buy tramadol without prescription claritin versus clarinex buy opiumorlistat plendil dosage amitriptyline hcl information on steroids how to make methamphetamine buy cheap meridia no percription temovate cream free viagra samples zithromax pregnancy orlistat side effects medrol dosepak online eunlose phentermine prescription online generic viagra softtabs online nordette phentermine yellow 30 mg buy triphasil british dragon steroids buy rohypnol online plendil side effects buy india captopril spironolactone medication online retin a what is sertraline aldactone description levothroid medication buy nicotrol inhaler ultracet withdraw symptoms tamoxifen breast cancer esomeprazole nexium skelaxin medication Buy Amikacin Buy Ethisterone Buy Amoxapine Buy Probenecid Buy Loxapine Buy Neomycin Buy Ipratropium Buy Zyban Buy Metaproterenol Buy Ramipril Buy Levaquin Buy Loratadine Buy Indomethacin Buy Estradiol Buy Streptokinase Buy Tetrabenazine Buy Aldactone Buy Cefoperazone Buy Albuterol Buy Mometasone Buy Nifedipine Buy Nabumetone Buy Tolazamide Buy Terbinafine Buy Terfenadine Buy Opium Buy Celecoxib Buy Methocarbamol Buy Restoril Buy Glyburide Buy Methsuximide Buy Sinemet Buy Doxylamine Buy Luvox Buy Dacarbazine Buy Clomipramine Buy Bromides Buy Dextrothyroxine Buy Mesoridazine Buy Dienestrol Buy Plicamycin Buy Lidocaine Buy Niaspan Buy Bendroflumethiazide Buy Enoxaparin Buy Cimetidine Buy Bactrim Buy Minipress Buy Etoposide Buy Ditropan Buy Idarubicin Buy Lynestrenol Buy Oxprenolol Buy Nitroprusside Buy Phenergan Buy Loracarbef Buy Chenodiol Buy Trazodone Buy Cefmetazole Buy Cetirizine Buy Phensuximide Buy Trifluoperazine Buy Betaxolol Buy Colesevelam Buy Ansaid Buy Miconazole Buy Sulfonamides Buy Amphotericin B Buy Protirelin Buy Warfarin Buy Sumycin Buy Delavirdine Buy Methoxsalen Buy Lanoxin Buy Acebutolol Buy Prednisolone Buy Pyridostigmine Buy Ambien Buy Diphenadione Buy Atropine Buy Tricor Buy Diovan Buy Electricity Buy Vicodin Buy Cytarabine Buy Mecamylamine Buy Imitrex Buy Rabeprazole Buy Chlorpheniramine Buy Dactinomycin Buy Penicillin Buy Ofloxacin Buy Ketorolac Buy Ouabain Buy Cholecalciferol Buy Epoprostenol Buy Idoxuridine Buy Isoniazid Buy Iodipamide Buy Physostigmine Buy Fioricet Buy Chlorothiazide Buy Milrinone Buy Mucomyst Buy Ethchlorvynol Buy Foscarnet Buy Terazosin Buy Flutamide Buy Zetia Buy Telmisartan Buy Alfentanil Buy Losartan Buy Mirapex Buy Methyldopa Buy Aspirin Buy Dexamethasone Buy Ethambutol Buy Naltrexone Buy Amlodipine Buy Cholestyramine Buy Reglan Buy Ecotrin Buy Trientine Buy Ondansetron Buy Nefazodone Buy Glycopyrrolate Buy Desipramine Buy Vancomycin Buy Accutane Buy Depakote Buy Accupril Buy Triamcinolone Buy Phenelzine Buy Permax Buy Allegra Buy Ticarcillin Buy Cogentin Buy Pechanga Casino Buy Ceftin Buy Hyperalimentation Buy Cyproheptadine Buy Nicotrol Buy Reviparin Buy Ethoheptazine Buy Iodoxamate Buy Spironolactone Buy Cefazolin Buy Thiotepa Buy Nizatidine Buy Fenoprofen Buy Voltaren Buy Levorphanol Buy Valerian Buy Sulindac Buy Acetophenazine Buy Lyrica Buy Buspirone Buy Locoid Buy Lopressor Buy Pediacare Buy Nonoxynol Buy Iproniazid Buy Dexfenfluramine Buy Monopril Buy Adapalene Buy Minocin Buy Lunesta Buy Didrex Buy Colestipol Buy Tolazoline Buy Simethicone Buy Oxycontin Buy Avalide Buy Clofazimine Buy Propoxyphene Buy Meropenem Buy Aztreonam Buy Iodothyrin Buy Protonix Buy Gatifloxacin Buy Abilify Buy Avapro Buy Provera Buy Trovafloxacin Buy Methylphenidate Buy Marijuana Buy Bricanyl Buy Atorvastatin Buy Corticotropin Buy Beclomethasone Buy Motrin Buy Cisplatin Buy Dulcolax Buy Dexbrompheniramine Buy Dicloxacillin Buy Flucytosine Buy Bethanechol Buy Buclizine Buy Clotrimazole Buy Procyclidine Buy Ciguatoxin Buy Norethindrone Buy Melphalan Buy Aminoglutethimide Buy Ambenonium Buy Tetracycline Buy Anafranil Buy Methenamine Buy Bontril Buy Calan Buy Dapsone Buy Proguanil Buy Dextromethorphan Buy Clindamycin Buy Gabapentin Buy Thiabendazole Buy Diprolene Buy Imipenem Buy Quinacrine Buy Actonel Buy Chloroquine Buy Clozapine Buy Biaxin Buy Orlistat Buy Demeclocycline Buy Vytorin Buy Famotidine Buy Heroin Buy Cyclosporine Buy Brompheniramine Buy Heparin Buy Lodine Buy Minoxidil Buy Methoxamine Buy Protamine Buy Methscopolamine Buy Prilosec Buy Rizatriptan Buy Renova Buy Cleocin Buy Kanamycin Buy Quinine Buy Biperiden Buy Tessalon Buy Imipramine Buy Penbutolol Buy Felbamate Buy Methacycline Buy Carbidopa Buy Amprenavir Buy Ultracet Buy Cyclacillin Buy Nelfinavir Buy Carisoprodol Buy Felodipine Buy Metrizamide Buy Chlordiazepoxide Buy Premphase Buy Paroxetine Buy Fiorinal Buy Noroxin Buy Thiothixene Buy Baclofen Buy Lysodren Buy Misoprostol Buy Diazepam Buy Seroquel Buy Flurbiprofen Buy Norgestrel Buy Hydromorphone Buy Aminopterin Buy Colchicine Buy Nexium Buy Losec Buy Tocainide Buy Nolvadex Buy Pravastatin Buy Triprolidine Buy Pyridium Buy Carbenicillin Buy Cefamandole Buy Imuran Buy Stavudine Buy Triflupromazine Buy Ampicillin Buy Loprox Buy Fluticasone Buy Trichlormethiazide Buy Sufentanil Buy Plavix Buy Desmopressin Buy Deferoxamine Buy Kaopectate Buy Isoproterenol Buy Irbesartan Buy Androgel Buy Prazosin Buy Triazolam Buy Ethinamate Buy Foradil Buy Prozac Buy Anileridine Buy Pentazocine Buy Avodart Buy Cinoxacin Buy Mephobarbital Buy Cosopt Buy Maxzide Buy Bexarotene Buy Hydroxyurea Buy Busulfan Buy Ketamine Buy Diethylstilbestrol Buy Ketoconazole Buy Ecstasy Buy Fenofibrate Buy Fosamax Buy Danazol Buy Mazindol Buy Thioridazine Buy Dantrolene Buy Levitra Buy Itraconazole Buy Singulair Buy Scopolamine Buy Claritin Buy Hetacillin Buy Chlorcyclizine Buy Flecainide Buy Remeron Buy Ms-Contin Buy Granisetron Buy Protriptyline Buy Fosinopril Buy Phendimetrazine Buy Methixene Buy Carvedilol Buy Amantadine Buy Bleomycin Buy Nimodipine Buy Strattera Buy Fluphenazine Buy Methotrimeprazine Buy Finasteride Buy Klonopin Buy Nisoldipine Buy Piperacillin Buy Omnicef Buy Guaifenesin Buy Piroxicam Buy Oxyphenonium Buy Atracurium Buy Olsalazine Buy Adipex Buy Tranylcypromine Buy Dichlorphenamide Buy Dolasetron Buy Clomiphene Buy Cefixime Buy Vincristine Buy Levlen Buy Bretylium Buy Alesse Buy Levothyroxine Buy Ibutilide Buy Mirena Buy Zanaflex Buy Flovent Buy Ceftizoxime Buy Dopamine Buy Ganciclovir Buy Lipids Buy Methazolamide Buy Colace Buy Zithromax Buy Nutmeg Buy Doxepin Buy Indinavir Buy Dimethindene Buy Pyridoxine Buy Cefadroxil Buy Epivir Buy Fosfomycin Buy Cevimeline Buy Celexa Buy Tyropanoate Buy Iothalamate Buy Erythromycin Buy Fluorouracil Buy Isoflurophate Buy Urokinase Buy Elocon Buy Cephradine Buy Zileuton Buy Tramadol Buy Mepenzolate Buy Acetyldigitoxin Buy Codeine Buy Yohimbine Buy Phytonadione Buy Noctec Buy Cefprozil Buy Carteolol Buy Chloramphenicol Buy Phenolphthalein Buy Oxymorphone Buy Theophylline Buy Lotrimin Buy Cefotetan Buy Cyclobenzaprine Buy Rimantadine Buy Macrobid Buy Bromodiphenhydramine Buy Rosiglitazone Buy Eprosartan Buy Diatrizoate Buy Synthroid Buy Lypressin Buy Metolazone Buy Imodium Buy Cortisone Buy Divalproex Buy Diphenhydramine Buy Afrin Buy Bupropion Buy Metoclopramide Buy Arthrotec Buy Nasalcrom Buy Chlorhexidine Buy Plendil Buy Cefdinir Buy Permethrin Buy Oxymetazoline Buy Phenobarbital Buy Flunitrazepam Buy Naratriptan Buy Butaperazine Buy Antazoline Buy Oxyphenbutazone Buy Paromomycin Buy Lasix Buy Yasmin Buy Glimepiride Buy Niacin Buy Betamethasone Buy Furosemide Buy Diclofenac Buy Nizoral Buy Mercaptopurine Buy Cozaar Buy Femara Buy Lovastatin Buy Vidarabine Buy Tetanus Buy Arimidex Buy Hydrochlorothiazide Buy Fastin Buy Cyclamate Buy Adenosine Buy Moricizine Buy Oxtriphylline Buy Demerol Buy Cyclandelate Buy Cerivastatin Buy Promethazine Buy Risperdal Buy Simvastatin Buy Topamax Buy Fentanyl Buy Keflex Buy Lindane Buy Vinblastine Buy Niacinamide Buy Chlorpromazine Buy Carbimazole Buy Zuclopenthixol Buy Carbinoxamine Buy Temazepam Buy Oseltamivir Buy Mephenytoin Buy Trimethaphan Buy Sulfasalazine Buy Mesalamine Buy Thyroid Buy Glucophage Buy Disopyramide Buy Chlorambucil Buy Ionamin Buy Toradol Buy Metaraminol Buy Estrogen Buy Quinidine Buy Propantheline Buy Lincomycin Buy Methdilazine Buy Bumetanide Buy Apomorphine Buy Enoxacin Buy Selegiline Buy Avandia Buy Azathioprine Buy Nialamide Buy Toprol Buy Buspar Buy Trileptal Buy Nortriptyline Buy Isotretinoin Buy Clofibrate Buy Citalopram Buy Hydralazine Buy Letrozole Buy Imdur Buy Cytotec Buy Troleandomycin Buy Aerobid Buy Lomefloxacin Buy Oxacillin Buy Hyzaar Buy Dimenhydrinate Buy Paregoric Buy Lamisil Buy Methaqualone Buy Saccharin Buy Pentobarbital Buy Ceftriaxone Buy Fluoxetine Buy Norflex Buy Acarbose Buy Oleandomycin Buy Nalbuphine Buy Lomotil Buy Nalorphine Buy Timolol Buy Cefepime Buy Celiprolol Buy Benicar Buy Bacampicillin Buy Amoxicillin Buy Vasotec Buy Phenytoin Buy Hydrocodone Buy Hydrocortisone Buy Paxil Buy L-Lysine Buy Azatadine Buy Clorazepate Buy Zyprexa Buy Methantheline Buy Enebrel Buy Ativan Buy Doxorubicin Buy Propranolol Buy Tretinoin Buy Maprotiline Buy Propafenone Buy Furazolidone Buy Fenfluramine Buy Bentyl Buy Ergotamine Buy Clonazepam Buy Robaxin Buy Thyroglobulin Buy Benazepril Buy Vinorelbine Buy Tridihexethyl Buy Disulfiram Buy Coumadin Buy Isoetharine Buy Ketoprofen Buy Mirtazapine Buy Dexchlorpheniramine Buy Polymyxin B Buy Medroxyprogesterone Buy Medrol Buy Prednisone Buy Teniposide Buy Benztropine Buy Carbarsone Buy Alavert Buy Tussionex Buy Glipizide Buy Hexachlorophene Buy Diazoxide Buy Cephapirin Buy Estrone Buy Allopurinol Buy Benzthiazide Buy Aminophylline Buy Asparaginase Buy Hydroflumethiazide Buy Bromocriptine Buy Montelukast Buy Aspartame Buy Benadryl Buy Tylenol Buy Albendazole Buy Trimethobenzamide Buy Elavil Buy Ethotoin Buy Guanabenz Buy Norepinephrine Buy Butalbital Buy Mycostatin Buy Flavoxate Buy Cordarone Buy Minocycline Buy Metyrosine Buy Butorphanol Buy Ritodrine Buy Fluconazole Buy Amphetamine Buy Adderall Buy Amiloride Buy Piperazine Buy Procainamide Buy Dofetilide Buy Geodon Buy Cytomel Buy Tamoxifen Buy Butriptyline Buy Trihexyphenidyl Buy Clomocycline Buy Vaccine Buy Cycloserine Buy Cefonicid Buy Indapamide Buy Levoxyl Buy Effexor Buy Phenazopyridine Buy Sildenafil Buy Oxyphencyclimine Buy Aldara Buy Pyrazinamide Buy Suboxone Buy Novobiocin Buy Dobutamine Buy Camphor Buy Dutasteride Buy Amitriptyline Buy Piperacetazine Buy Carbamazepine Buy Neurontin Buy Micronase Buy Guanethidine Buy Griseofulvin Buy Multivitamins Buy Catapres Buy Feldene Buy Isosorbide Buy Hydroxyzine Buy Captopril Buy Pindolol Buy Atacand Buy Primaquine Buy Clarinex Buy Triamterene Buy Flagyl Buy Cyclothiazide Buy Zyrtec Buy Ortho Tricyclen Buy Dicumarol Buy Skelaxin Buy Zalcitabine Buy Paramethadione Buy Macrodantin Buy Clopidogrel Buy Isocarboxazid Buy Streptomycin Buy Lactulose Buy Mephentermine Buy Glatiramer Buy Dothiepin Buy Darvocet Buy Primidone Buy Alteplase Buy Dyphylline Buy Saquinavir Buy Cloxacillin Buy Prevacid Buy Iodamide Buy Capreomycin Buy Amerge Buy Abacavir Buy Cinnarizine Buy Midazolam Buy Norethynodrel Buy Mebanazine Buy Miglitol Buy Vitamin Buy Sucralfate Buy Methyclothiazide Buy Atarax Buy Efavirenz Buy Carphenazine Buy Hexoprenaline Buy Metoprolol Buy Thalidomide Buy Laetrile Buy Aricept Buy Dianabol Buy Ceftibuten Buy Oxaprozin Buy Methamphetamine Buy Inderal Buy Flomax Buy Oxazepam Buy Meloxicam Buy Thiphenamil Buy Gitalin Buy Trimetrexate Buy Ursodiol Buy Alka-Seltzer Buy Quazepam Buy Viagra Buy Gemfibrozil Buy Aurothioglucose Buy Phentolamine Buy Thyrotropin Buy Butoconazole Buy Dichloralphenazone Buy Amoxil Buy Ampicilin Buy Cephalexin Buy Secobarbital Buy Cefotaxime Buy Valsartan Buy Methotrexate Buy Deslanoside Buy Combivent Buy Nadolol Buy Ciclopirox Buy Pioglitazone Buy Trandolapril Buy Homatropine Buy Prempro Buy Chantix Buy Cialis Buy Tacrolimus Buy Ethanol Buy Digitoxin Buy Lamictal Buy Guanadrel Buy Flonase Buy Ritonavir Buy Epinephrine Buy Repaglinide Buy Cidofovir Buy Cyclopenthiazide Buy Rifampin Buy Cardizem Buy Quinapril Buy Podophyllum Buy Pemoline Buy Etanercept Buy Chlortetracycline Buy Ceftazidime Buy Terbutaline Buy Echinacea Buy Norfloxacin Buy Phenazocine Buy Esomeprazole Buy Pyrilamine Buy Flupenthixol Buy Clarithromycin Buy Promazine Buy Leucovorin Buy Succinylcholine Buy Antipyrine Buy Lotrel Buy Acetylcholine Buy Acomplia Buy Nicoumalone Buy Glucotrol Buy Hydroxychloroquine Buy Praziquantel Buy Nadroparin Buy Lexapro Buy Septra Buy Cymbalta Buy Procarbazine Buy Phenindione Buy Orphenadrine Buy Tripelennamine Buy Isopropamide Buy Duragesic Buy Morphine Buy Diltiazem Buy Budesonide Buy Methicillin Buy Lescol Buy Nafcillin Buy Doxycycline Buy Lopid Buy Pilocarpine Buy Dipyridamole Buy Demecarium Buy Menadione Buy Dirithromycin Buy Estrace Buy Moxifloxacin Buy Mebendazole Buy Lithium Buy Pepcid Buy Gentamicin Buy Humulin Buy Zoloft Buy Iodine Buy Augmentin Buy Pargyline Buy Amiodarone Buy Zafirlukast Buy Amaryl Buy Dicyclomine Buy Zantac Buy Mannitol Buy Fexofenadine Buy Mefloquine Buy Cefpodoxime Buy Meclizine Buy Nasonex Buy Acyclovir Buy Calcifediol Buy Sertraline Buy Glycerin Buy Anagrelide Buy Provigil Buy Thiopropazate Buy Trimethoprim Buy Cefuroxime Buy Ethosuximide Buy Pancuronium Buy Estraderm Buy Lovenox Buy Enalapril Buy Oxytetracycline Buy Levodopa Buy Naloxone Buy Dilaudid Buy Mechlorethamine Buy Trimeprazine Buy Zidovudine Buy Diflucan Buy Pantoprazole Buy Dimethothiazine Buy Ritalin Buy Phenacetin Buy Liotrix Buy Meprobamate Buy Chlorprothixene Buy Mifepristone Buy Atenolol Buy Botox Buy Carbachol Buy Esmolol Buy Phenylephrine Buy Piperidolate Buy Actos Buy Isometheptene Buy Tolbutamide Buy Methimazole Buy Hytrin Buy Flosequinan Buy Zocor Buy Bayer Buy Diphemanil Buy Tobramycin Buy Hexamethonium Buy Phenyltoloxamine Buy Pheniramine Buy Daunorubicin Buy Hydroxyprogesterone Buy Phenylpropanolamine Buy Colistimethate Buy Cisapride Buy Lamotrigine Buy Ibuprofen Buy Bepridil Buy Thiamine Buy Mestranol Buy Chlorotrianisene Buy Dilantin Buy Epirubicin Buy Acetohexamide Buy Casanthranol Buy Cyclizine Buy Nicorette Buy Pravachol Buy Nystatin Buy Belladonna Buy Prinivil Buy Podofilox Buy Haldol Buy Eulexin Buy Meclofenamate Buy Exelon Buy Penicillamine Buy Perindopril Buy Relafen Buy Zestoretic Buy Chlortrimeton Buy Reserpine Buy Metronidazole Buy Accolate Buy Etodolac Buy Dyazide Buy Alendronate Buy Nevirapine Buy Naprosyn Buy Mobic Buy Ethopropazine Buy Metformin Buy Pentoxifylline Buy Encainide Buy Didanosine Buy Insulin Buy Differin Buy Tolmetin Buy Cycrimine Buy Aprotinin Buy Famvir Buy Digitalis Buy Phencyclidine Buy Aprobarbital Buy Leflunomide Buy Kaolin Buy Zolpidem Buy Sotalol Buy Cefatrizine Buy Isoxsuprine Buy Mevacor Buy Phenoxybenzamine Buy Ceclor Buy Cilostazol Buy Eldepryl Buy Flurazepam Buy Isradipine Buy Ergocalciferol Buy Cocaine Buy Cromolyn Sodium Buy Lorazepam Buy Advair Buy Fenoldopam Buy Tinzaparin Buy Olanzapine Buy Iprindole Buy Mepindolol Buy Anisindione Buy Sparfloxacin Buy Moxalactam Buy Etretinate Buy Tegretol Buy Cephalothin Buy Lisinopril Buy Ceforanide Buy Sumatriptan Buy Acetaminophen Buy Diflunisal Buy Digoxin Buy Altace Buy Lozol Buy Terconazole Buy Prometrium Buy Buprenorphine Buy Dovonex Buy Xenical Buy Donepezil Buy Spiramycin Buy Acetazolamide Buy Prochlorperazine Buy Nitrofurantoin Buy Nitroglycerin Buy Linezolid Buy Chromium Buy Acitretin Buy Spectinomycin Buy Cafergot Buy Cyclophosphamide Buy Hexocyclium Buy Alphaprodine Buy Soma Buy Meperidine Buy Naproxen Buy Coreg Buy Troglitazone Buy Cefoxitin Buy Levallorphan Buy Celebrex Buy Haloperidol Buy Famciclovir Buy Oxybutynin Buy Ethynodiol Buy Methadone Buy Loperamide Buy Danaparoid Buy Edrophonium Buy Neostigmine Buy Droperidol Buy Labetalol Buy Propofol Buy Polythiazide cialis and viagra purchase online cialis effectiveness taladafil cialis cialis 20 mg tablet cialis levitra name cialis text good cialis women effects crushing cialis tablets da vinci procedure cialis protocol price of cialis risperodol interactions with cialis viagra levitra vendita cialis cialis levitra viagra comparisons board cialis discount image message optional cutting 20mg cialis cialis prescription india buy cialis shop tadalafil cialis and premature ejaculation cialis viagra levitra comparisons on line prescriptions cialis pills viagra cialis levitra href page como consigo cialis espana women who took cialis cid 355 sub 26 cialis cialis off shore cialis lilly legal way to get cialis cialis cialis viagra cialis dysfunction erectyle levitra viagra cialis pharmacy sale 20mg generic cialis pills generic cialis $1.00 per pill cialis on line viagra cialis and levitra prescription online levitra cialis viagra cialis softtabs online fast shipping cialis and hep c cialis pills cialis sside effects erection cialis cialis long term cialis and levetra cialis overnight express mail cialis 10 20 mg cialis pills micronized ocular side effects due to cialis company selling cialis in etobicoke buy cialis online pharmacy online new erectyle drug cialis u 3312 viagra cialis discount generic cialis pills online cialis heart attack cialis versus levitra buy cialis without a prescription cialis tadalafil cheapest online cialis histamine reaction cialis flagstaff nascar cialis car buy discount cialis buy cialis online from dreampharmaceuticals best generic cialis pills price off label cialis usage mexican generic cialis b cialis b cialis patent search prescription cialis taking cialis for better sex cialis experience usage cialis order form in uk cialis cialis forum pharmacy cialis drug warning regaalis cialis cialis recomendation does medicaid cover cialis cialis soft tabs buy cialis line cheapest generic cialis pills uk viagra cialis levitra comparison cialis levitra better 15 cialis 20 mg cialis impotence drug eli lilly co cialis medix cialis levitra strong viagra viagra or cialis cialis levitra sales viagra levitra pill cialis forums buy cialis online now cialis uprima viagra side affects of cialis cialis rebates the cialis promis oxytocin cialis release cialis marijuana tricare cialis prescription coverage cialis thirsty does cialis work cialis tadalafil under tongue dissolve cialis alternative cut cialis dosage cialis in action cialis for sale uk viagra cialis combo cheap cialis in uk cialis allergic cialis viagra comparison cialis diabetes generic cialis pills best price cialis marketing strategy viagra levitra valium cialis tramadol hydrocodone women take cialis drug cialis cialis buy cialis viagra difference cialis uses cialis naion iwant to buy some cialis buy cialis cheap prices fast delivery cialis buzzmachine by jeff jarvis cialis sudden hearing loss cialis how does it work cialis lavitra differences addiction to cialis dut cs option educ sp cialis multiple erections on cialis cialis indian pharmacy cost of cialis cialis cialis information cialis reaction dicount cialis cialis open western cheap cialis pharmacy online id 1321 cialis cialis new york 1cheap cialis online cialis causes high blood pressure cheap cialis viagra sildenafil cialis generico generic cialis price cialis vision cialis for bph cialis and grapefruit brand cialis cialis overnight new york vergelijking cialis kamagra cialis viagra levitra which is best equipement sp cialis cialis generic tadalafil cialis danger cialis in canada cialis testimonies cialis levitra sales viagra buy sublingual cialis online viagra cialis and cialis placebo generic cialis soft cialis drug intereactions free cialis free levitra free viagra cialis pills commercial viagra vs cialis licensed pharmacies online buing cialis next day cialis presription canadian drugs cialis red devil tadalafil generic cialis type web cialis grapefruit and cialis cialis mg per serving cialis 20mg for sale cialis uk online try cialis cialis compare discount online price cialis introducing cialis sublingual cialis the new viagra does cialis have a taste difference between viagra and cialis cialis tooth pain consultation and overnight viagra websites cialis cialis effective soft tab treatment cialis 2bonline buy cialis drug online rx hypertension cialis and pulmonary cialis testamonials liquid ancilliaries nolvadex liquidex cialis discout cialis cialis side effect 0a cialis in wmoen regalis generic cialis generic medication cialis cialis lawyer discount wholesale cialis mdma and cialis cialis and levitra ventajas desventajas cialis actress cheapest cialis price cialis generic name buy cialis dream online pharmaceutical cialis storage cialis line cialis aus china 5mg cialis unbelievable viagra and cialis offer cheap cialis find buy cialis online overnight search cialis fox news cheap cialis site order cialis online dream pharmaceutical cialis sale usa women who take cialis generic cialis soft from india cialis and wellbutrin cialis drug appearance tadalafil cheap cialis free cheap cialis pills cialis top value cheap sildenfil with 4 free cialis uprima viagra cialis compare cialis to viagra buy cialis from usa online cialis levitra compare after cialis effects prices buy cialis cialas cialis drug approved cialis viagra propecia levitra erectile dysfunction bbs inkjet printer cialis cialis safe secure online shopping cialis dysfunction pill 1buy generic cialis cialis uk sales r20 cialis generic cialis talafadil cialis impotence drug canada cialis line cialis and anti depressants cialis four hours discrete cialis get cheap cialis lowest prices cialis injury attorney columbus recreation drug cialis 2003 case studies of cialis cialis and addiction and anger cialis compared to levitra buy cialis domain online tripod com cheap online cialis cialis by fedex genuine cialis no prescription cialis compare levitra performance viagra keywords cialis levitra cialis for woman cuba gooding cialis cialis update fabricant sp cialis de m nage searchstring cialis type all 5mg cialis generic what happens after you take cialis prescription cialis on line cialis usage no prescription cialis overnight cialis mexican cialis cialis substitutes buy cialis on line uk cialis in dublin cialis testimonial cialis avoid headache cialis com compare ed medicines cialis and levitra canada by cialis online cialis and muscle cramps generic cialis pills free trial offer which is best viagra livetra cialis cheap cialis softtabs headaches or heartburn taking cialis discount cialis levitra viagra viagra cialis desire cialis vs viagra katrina image warehouse cialis lawsuit cialis overnight us pharmacy do not take cialis 30 generic cialis softtabs l-arginine and cialis mix natural cialis 100 dollars cialis cialis use with alcohol generic cialis pills erection viagra cialis levitra reviews cialis picture cialis information prescribing buy cialis cheap cialis and orgasm cialis 20mg on line buy by cialis money order discount viagra cialis cialis tadalafil 20 mg importing cialis from canada to us buy cialis mail online fed ex delivery cialis cialis manufacturer cialis soft tabs uk generic viagra cialis viagra cialis levitra comparison dosages cialis fedex cialis info relationship between the prostate cialis cialis discount vioxx cialis viagra levitra comparison cialis uk buy cialis pharmacy cialis online online get cialis cheapest cialis generica cialis effect cialis 2b chat room discussion is buying cialis on line legal cialis injury lawyer columbus lamisil cialis next day cialis cialis comparison mexico cialis board cialis contractor licensing state cialis bestseller cialis supplier ball forging bed buy cialis 1buy cialis avodart cialis clomid diflucan dostinex gluco cialis price compare viagra cialis levitra cialis germany cialis price comparisons effectiveness viagra levitra cialis u 19835 cialis cialis ingredient cialis or vardenafil 20mg tablet buy viagra cialis levitra online prescription cialis dosage splitting pills cialis superior in diabetes viagra cialis health erection penis man canada cialis online generic cialis 350 cialis half life generic viagra and cialis cialis canadian generic compare cialis levitra vi liquid cialis prescription for cialis purchase order cialis enseignement sp cialis online cialis sales does cialis affect hearing purchase generic cialis online effect of cialis on wowen generic cialis w master card attorney cialis columbus injury cialis achalasia safe generic cialis best cialis generic price cialis 4 tablets viagara and cialis cialis dreampharmaceuticals online buy cialis online pharmacy cialis generic effectiveness overnight shipping cialis generic cialis pills generic prescription cialis ohne rezept cialis overnight shipment compare cheap generic cialis compare cialis levitra forms of cialis cialis a soft pill cialis recommended doasage cialis identify real cialis cialis 5 cheapest cialis with prescription cialis delivery generic overnight cialis alcohol cialis ad cuba goodins cialis open tee times western generic cialis softtabs mail order cialis ed drug cialis drug cialis women using cialis side effects for cialis cialis and clarithromycin viagra and cialis together cialis viagra at the same time cat 6 cialis cialis 10 india cialis cialis cialis genuinerx net viagra viagra break cialis tablets free sample viagra vs cialis cialis online uk generic cialis pills generic viagra levitra cialis and drinking cialis attractive brunette levitra ad cialis family viagra cialis cheap generic cialis cheapest lowest price generic cialis prices cialis uk delivery cialis penis pictures cialis clinical trials buy cialis href online cialis time to start working compare generic cialis prices cialis generic pal pay soft tab pregnancy cialis cialis propecia viagra con net q cialis cialis erectile disfunction cialis soft 10 cialis cost sell australia cialis free sample no prescription buy cialis online cheap pharmacy here cialis generic on line cialis review cialis lead investigator compare cialis viagra levitra clinical data for large dosage cialis generic cialis tadalafil purchase cialis generic viagra cialis pills cialis illegal philippines achy back from jogging or cialis purchase cheap cialis online cialis orders fed ex cialis geneic cheapest cialis cialis patient sample natural alternatives cialis cialis online overnight cialis comparison viagra cialis now cialis nextag cialis levitra comparison cialis and ace inhibitors cialis price ups viagra cialis levitra free overdose cialis cialis magic cialis and multiple erections one pill cialis experience viagra koerier cialis amsterdam cialis faqs low cost generic generic cialis pills cialis interaction order cialis on-line cialis on line trusted pharmacy catalog cialis pills email women taking cialis in europe buy cialis pharmacy online addicted to cialis cheap cialis generic free online samples fo cialis rx online cialis cialis safety cialis s magazine sp cialis savon cialis generika los angeles and cialis flomax auk cialis sales experience with generic cialis buy viagra cialis generic viagra 26 cialis cialis best price cialis soft fast shipping cialis 20mg tablet drug called cialis experiences using cialis cialis lesions sp cialis annuaire informatique cialis levitra viagra index cut cialis dosa buy generic cialis without credit cards google cialis for men and wenman generic cialis softtab cialis rx for pulmonary hypertension cialis bet cialis online whatis cialis generic viagra compare generic cialis pills cheapest cialis 20mg offer cuba gooding jr cialis commercial cialis nascar cialis viagra comparisons fda approved generic cialis cialis pri cialis comparison levitra difference between cialis and levitra cialis ireland cialis vs levitra cialis and antibiotics bontril cialis free no prescription what is cialis complaints regarding generic cialis cialis with no prescription sildenafil citrate viagra cialis levitra made cialis discount coupon cialis research cialis interaction aspirin cialis generic versus brand name erectile effects of cialis new erectile drug cialis pharmacy cialis generic cialis made in india generic cialis pharmaceutical manufacturer2c oklahoma cialis generico sildenafil generic generic cialis pills online order cialis uk cialis adiction non perscription generic cialis purchase cialis a drug cialis pharmacy sell which best buy cialis softtabs health side effects cialis generc cialis discount cialis generic pharmacy cialis z cialis no pharmacy prescription comparison viagra levitra cialis cialis prescription price and benefits cialis after priapism pm 10kb loading cialis cialis canadian pharmacy effexor with cialis generic viagra cialis levitra buy cheap dose low viagra cialis drug very cheap cialis cialis holland cialis walmart viagra levitra cialis stuffy nose cialis us cheap cialis tablet cialis golf open western drug cialis tadalafil generis cialis cheap cialis online u 17590 cialis plavix and cialis taken together cialis erectyle dysfunction acheter cialis cialis jual klang generic cialis mexico cialis denavir flonase myonlinemeds biz buy 1 cialis cialis canadian drugs cialis vs viagra vs levitra buy cialis cialisnarodru domain uk chemist cialis price cialis obsessive compulsion menopause cialis buy prescription cialis cialis online softtabs cialis trial pack next day shipping cole sp cialis e quatre saisons discoun cialis fedex free shipping cialis cheap forum 23 name cialis text good cialis pill identifyer tadalafil cialis safety and efficacy effects of cialis cialis time to work fastest delivery purchasing cialis online cuba gooding and cialis approved cialis fda genuine cialis women libido search results buy cialis cialis cr cialis best cialis price cialis how it works cialis sales uk cialis online discount nasacort aq cialis cheap pharmacy viagra cialis levitra apcalis cialis buy discounted cialis softtabs brand name cialis enzyte viagra cialis cialis side affect 200 generic cialis softtabs viagra cialis comparison cheap generic cialis tadalafil cialis spinal cord injury cialis buy cheap cialis online index buy cheap generic cialis generic cialis money order keywords cialis cialis et levitra dosage cialis viagra cialis online pharmacy satisfaction guaranteed cialis floaters cellules sp cialis es 3 cialis generic levitra viagra generic cialis overnigh the buy cialis cialis shipping brand cialis for sale buy cialis fda cialis sales comercial generic cialis cheap us cialis formula original rx stamina cialis opposite effec cialis multiple attempts cialis arthritis hand stiffness vicodin viagra cialis women taking cialis beta blockers and cialis cialis pills and california grapefruit cialis lilly icos cialis softtab cialis cialis free online cialis generic rx viagra plus cialis cialis tadalafil cialis tadafil tal 30mg cialis cialis soft tabs canada commercials for cialis cialis free fedex 1cheap cialis women cialis cialis liver problems cialis contraindications narrow angle glaucoma cialis experiences cialis denavir yasmin retin-a cialis pills free generic cialis pills tadalafil vergelijking kamagra cialis online cialis dream pharmaceutical generic cialis softtabs tadalafil viagra vs cialis levitra generic cialis pills drug cialis cheap no prescription viagra or kamagra or cialis cialis user forum cialis generic india fed ex overnight delivery cialis buy cialis narod ru domain can woman take cialis celebrex renova tramadol cialis generic viagra caverta 2c cialis cheap generic name for cialis cialis online no prescription free cialis without prescription distributions sp cialis es france cialis vs levitra vs viagra cialis generic overnight cialis debt consolidation generic cialis fast delivery best price for cialis free cialis sample cialis taken by women viagra cialis espa ol buy cialis where viagra levitra cialis pharmacist perscription drugs cialis generic identify compare levitra cialis ref hth q cialis cialis tadalafil treat viagra levitra cialis comparison buy cialis uk flomax and cialis interaction alchohol and cialis cialis work cialis injury lawyer ohio directions on using cialis viagra cialis phentermine soma purchase cialis online cialis sideeffects generic cialis pills voucher cialis softtabs online cialis free sample index cialis viagra best results islandspharmacy cialis discount cialis pill cialis usa cialis cialis pdr cialis cialis tadalafil indian cialis pills generic name for generic cialis pills 2002 cialis daily discount mar statistics cheapest generic cialis with overnight delivery cialis with chemical formula of cialis cialis doctors advice cialis 20 mg prices soft cialis gel non prescription cialis pills quinine cialis drug interaction compare viagra cialis generic cialis pills mexico when cialis does not work generic cialis pharmacy review cialis next day delivery does generic cialis work cialis mex cialis retail 2006 cialis followup march post regalis cialis tadalafi cialis ogoplex and cialis cialis howard lahti loading yahoo brand cialis name cialis online safety cialis offers uk cialis supplier cialis photo 4.26 buy cialis cialis warnings generic cialis order softtabs online cialis from canada coumadin cialis cialis and zoloft interactions cialis permanent blindness cialis order site cialis soft top is he taking cialis buy cialis online from canada action catholique sp cialis e online cialis purchase free samples of cialis magazine sp cialis pn 1 cialis tramadol valtrex renova cialis generic cialis overnight cialis bathtub order cheap cialis avoid upset stomach with cialis 1 liquid cialis cialis britain cialis tadalafil american express u 15640 cialis generic cialis softtabs buy online non generic cialis australia viagra cialis supply cialis november cialis erection health man penis viagra cialis drug interaction cialis testimonials affordable cialis cialis flomax mouth dissolving generic cialis red devil cialis buying cialis online where can i buy cialis price of viagra compared to cialis cialis pictures descriptions cialis hypertension vaniqa cialis propecia cialis calis cialis levitra free sample cialis coupons cialis muscle pain back pain from taking cialis cialis drug drug levitra pharmacist prescription cialis pharmacology overnight cialis tadalafil cialis soft gel cialis tadalafil canadian viagra y cialis espa ol cialis pills taladafil generic cialis pills cheap generic cialis pills doses buy cheap cialis on the net cialis retin-a alesse buy cheap cialis generic levitra viagra cialis recreational use 1canada cialis cialis buy on line cialis cut the pill daily use of cialis cialis levitra viagra zyban generic cialis uk online pharmacy cialis cheap online pharmacy order cialis online dreampharmaceuticalscom comparison viagra and cialis 351 cialis ic best prices on cialis cialis coupon cialis wholesale online attestation ducation sp cialis cialis kaufen cialis internet commercials cialis levitra viagra vs cialis generic softtabs cheapest generic cialis cialis effec cialis patch viagra cialis vs cialis pill online online pharmacy cialis viagra lavetra cialis compare cialis cialis de cheap cialis overnight no prescription patanol cialis nexium cialis sample free cialis doctors in maryland cialis viagra viagra viagra comparison levitra cialis viagra vicodin and cialis better viagra cialis buying cialis review cialis and levitra viagra online brand cialis 36 hour fda american generic cialis 1discount cialis cialis zrich cialis for overseas generic cialis 24100 2f 20mg cialis lawsuit tadalafil cialis perscriptions viagra cialis online what does generic cialis look like order generic cialis softtabs find information on cialis trimix and cialis cheap cialis canada no prescription cialis overnight delivery cialis usage for recreational sex celecoxib generic medications discount pharmacy cialis cialis side affects cialis rezeptfrei discount cialis 32 cialis generic levitra viagra is cialis or levitra better cheap cialis tadalafil 20 mg cialis buy it online huge discount cialis timing the dangers of cialis buy cialis canadian legal generic cialis no prescription cialis qu es compare prices on cialis cialis 30 sucess stories using cialis cialis nline buy cialis in south africa online cialis and contraindications cialis personal review cialis story cialis attorney cialis soft tab cheap cialis price compare cheapest source for cialis india cheapest generic cialis 4 20mg generic cialis softtabs free women libido cialis canada generic cialis nitrix interaction with cialis cialis valtrex alesse cialis tadalafil information page cialis grapefruit mexican cialis cialis comments cialis wmv tadalafil cialis education cialis guide cialis open back cialis generic guarantee money buy cialis by check cialis and food cialis viagra levitra trusted pharmacy catalog what is better levitra viagra cialis regali cialis cialis commercial cow hot tub new drug cialis us licensed pharmacies tadalafil citrate cialis natural alternative cialis email advertise message 0px site cialis cialis generic viagra cialis premature ejaculation cialis medicine cialis generic brand name differences cialis drug interactions cialis prescription online cialis 50mg cialis dosage 20mg cialis identify real cialis advice cheap cialis generic tramadol ultram ultram cialis canada health canada free trial cialis lilly icos cialis pills cialis online pharmacy carisoprodol cialis shipping ups cialis form indian pharmacies cialis singular interaction 91 oldsmobile cialis side marker lens best geniric cialis cheap viagra cialis online daily use cialis german remedies cialis cialis cheap online direct cialis alchohol consumption cialis drug impotence cialis canada rx 1 eli lilly cialis viagra levitra cialis compare cialis soft tabs online purchase compare cialis viagra levitra free trial cialis cialis cialis viagra t l phones sp cialis s buy cialis online cheap cialis uk chemist cialis headache and remedy cialis silagra cumwithus com free sample cialis eli lilly cialis tadafil cialis ace inhibitor cialis dosage rate cialis 2b dosage 2b side effects hrc cialis is cialis better than viagra cialis cancdian dugs 150 generic cialis softtabs cialis viagra dosage comparison viagara cialis cialis sports marketing rx4 cialis name cialis cialis weight loss cialis pills tips cialis overnigth cialis denavir ortho tri-cyclen 10 mg cialis cialis product cialis levitra vardenafil cialis for impotence cialis effects side cialis levitra market sales viagra cialis study cialis pill cutters cialis ingredients cialis generic free generic cialis mg amp mg cialis viagra canada best dosage of cialis cialis drug warning information girls on cialis cialis for free arizona cialis on cialis line cialis online supplier cialis causes lower blood pressure cialis from mexico generic cialis soft gel medication cialis brand cialis name online order compare livitra viagra and cialis cialis how much is safe cialis ciudad juarez cialis sample pack online viagra levitra cialis cialis discount canada cialis depression generic cialis canada segmentation of cialis dreampharmaceuticals cialis online cialis discount india 36 hours lasts cialis medical online cheapest cialis generic cialis generic levitra review viagra generic cialis comparison india pharmacy cheapest cialis cialis not effective against cialis drug law suit where to buy cialis online free erectile drug sample cialis cialis europe cheap viagra cialis last referers viagra cialis cialis nz cialis erectile cialis attorney columbus acxess cialis usa mail genaric cialis cialis cocaine after effects of cialis cat 1 keyword cialis sale cialis cialis pills for sale cialis blood levels cialis sof cialis online buy cialis without prescription marijuana cialis cialis online gt cheap cialis cialis erect penis cialis cheap online cialis pills facts cost compare vaiagra cialis levitra cialis silagra penegra cumwithuscom cialis generic viagra rss feed buying viagra assist cheap cialis cialis commercial music cialis side cialis vs viagra cialis user feedback cialis cardiac risks generic cialis online 5 eli lilly cialis generic cialis picture birth control allegra acid reflux cialis cialis tadalafil rausch Credit Card Cvv2 Generator Software Stolen Credit Card Details Chevron Credit Card Pay Online Credit Card Code Generator Credit Card Deals Best Credit Card Reward Point Best Value Credit Card Pay Credit Card Fast Chase Credit Card Email Applying For A Credit Card With No Credit Qantas Frequent Flyer Credit Card Best Credit Card For Poor Credit Good Year Credit Card Accept Credit Card No Terminal Verizon Credit Card Account Access Online Credit Card With Low Introductory Rate Shell Credit Card Services No Credit Card Required Webcam Credit Card Gif Apply For An Unsecured Credit Card Online Guaranteed Credit Card Approvals No Credit Checks Credit Card Credit Card Rates Compared Discover Credit Card Application Apply For Master Credit Card Good Credit Card Rate Cash Back Credit Card Gas Joint Credit Card Application Lyrics Chase Credit Card American Express Credit Card Status Free Cell Phone No Credit Card Needed Money Clip Credit Card Wallet Verifone Omni 3200 Credit Card Machine Low Rate Balance Transfer Credit Card Canada Credit Card Application Fleet Credit Card Services Horsham Pa Hacking Credit Card Bofa Credit Card Chase Credit Card Apply Apply For Credit Card For Canadian Low Rate Credit Card Offers Bank Credit Card Offer Credit Card Debt Relief Setting Up Merchant Credit Card Account Credit Card Cash Rebates Citi Simplicity Credit Card Disney Credit Card Offer Credit Card Debt Deceased Credit Card With Low Apr Simplicity Credit Card Credit Card Reader Machine How To Avoid Credit Card Fraud Buy Car With Credit Card Ge Capital Credit Card No Credit Card Needed Web Cams Hrc Credit Card Get A Us Credit Card Valid Credit Card Numbers Online American Express Centurion Credit Card Credit Card Rate Canada Instant Approval Bad Credit Card Prepaid Credit Card Uk 0 Credit Card Rate No Apr No Annual Fee Low Interest Credit Card Credit Card And Interest Credit Card Brazil Credit Card Air Reward Credit Card Debt Loan Best Business Credit Card Rates Department Store Credit Card Application Visa Credit Card For College Student Amex Blue Credit Card Uk Cashback Credit Card Being Sued By Credit Card Online Credit Card Payment Services Credit Card Collections Fuelman Credit Card Fraudulent Charges Credit Card Online Prepaid Credit Card Citibank Credit Card Philippine Small Business Credit Card Application Free Student Credit Card Online Credit Card Payment Systems Amalgamated Bank Of Chicago Credit Card Lower Interest Rate On Credit Card Credit Card Problem Fleet Platinum Credit Card Credit Card Cheat College Students And Credit Card Fleet Credit Card Customer Service Cheap Credit Card Rate Compare Mileage Credit Card Amivo Credit Card Accept Credit Card Merchant Credit Card Factoring Quickbooks Credit Card Processing 0 Interest Credit Card Low Interest Credit Card Offer No Credit Card Webcam Free Credit Card Laws Merchant Credit Card Protection Plus Credit Card Instant Decision For Bad Credit Credit Card Plains Commerce Bank Visa Credit Card Free Live Web Cams No Credit Card Needed E Commerce Credit Card Processing Airlines Business Credit Card Credit Card With Airline Miles Gm Credit Card Payment How To Make A Credit Card Free Wireless Credit Card Machine Free Porn No Credit Card Or Check Needed Airmiles Credit Card In Canada Bank One Credit Card Login Volkswagen Credit Card Credit Card For Business Poor Credit Credit Card Info Credit Card Number Listing Credit Card Offer Comparison Credit Card And Reward And Rebate Credit Card Contracts Generate Credit Card Number Chase Credit Card.Com Shell Oil Credit Card Chase Manhatan Credit Card Burn Free Music No Credit Card Needed Sinsburys Credit Card Credit Card Net Access Chevron Credit Card Payment Delta Frequent Flyer Credit Card Catalog Shopping Credit Card Accept Credit Card Online Merchant Account Dispute Credit Card Sterling Bank And Trust Credit Card Best Frequent Flyer Mile Credit Card Credit Card Reader Writer Software Equitable Pci Credit Card Free Live Webcams No Credit Card Needed Wacky Tobacky Inc Credit Card Mbna 0 Credit Card Credit Card Loyalty Tesco Credit Card 0 L S Ayres Credit Card Preapproved Credit Card Opt Out Express Credit Card Services No Credit Card Needed Cell Phone Instant Use Credit Card Blank Credit Card How Do Credit Card Companies Make Money Discover Credit Card Credit Card Offers For Students Charles Schwab Credit Card Best Credit Card Interest Pay Income Tax By Credit Card Cheap Credit Card Rates Fixed Rate Credit Card Offers Sears Credit Card Online Calculate Credit Card Credit Card Incentive Free Credit Card Number Generator Apply For Easy Credit Card Best Credit Card Rebate Bad Debt Credit Card Uk Non Profit Credit Card Counseling How To Reduce Credit Card Interest Credit Card With Flyer Miles Mileage Reward Credit Card Monthly Payment Calculator Credit Card Visa Credit Card Logo Credit Card Charges Abroad Richs Macys Credit Card How Do I Get A Credit Card Wachovia Bank Credit Card Master Card Credit Card My Own Credit Card Credit Card Debts Cheap Online Credit Card Processing Robinsons May Credit Card Services 0 Balance Transfer Credit Card Offer Hacked Credit Card Numbers Retail Services Credit Card Payment Verizon Visa Credit Card Account Online Best Rebate Credit Card Government Grant Credit Card Debt Credit Card Award Program Highest Cash Back Credit Card Fleet Credit Card Web Site Jp Morgan Chase Credit Card Chase Credit Card Account Access Credit Card Processing Instant Approval Uk Credit Card Credit Card Companies In Uk Credit Card Comparison Australia Best Credit Card Review Aspen Credit Card Best Credit Card For Students Credit Card Company In The Uk Accept Credit Card Uk No Interest Credit Card Offer To Generate Credit Card Discover Credit Card Phone Number Jpmorgan Chase Credit Card Credit Card Service Bureau Need A Credit Card With Bad Credit Student Credit Card With Online Approval Standard Chartered Credit Card Philippines Mobilexxon Credit Card Payment Tech Credit Card Pay Irs With Credit Card Credit Card Swiping Machine Chase Universal Credit Card Credit Card Fraud Victim Low Interest Rate Student Credit Card Credit Card Settlement Offers Pay Taxes With Credit Card Lane Bryant Catalog Credit Card Fleet Credit Card Online Payment Capital One Credit Card Offer Aspire Credit Card Pay Bill Bank Of America Credit Card Processing Credit Card Convenience Fee Visa Credit Card Customer Service Sears Credit Card Accounts Check Credit Card Balance Online Icici Bank Credit Card Payment Consolidate Debt Loan Credit Card How Is Credit Card Interest Calculated Credit Card Debt Advice Providian Secured Credit Card Texaco Credit Card Account College Student In Credit Card Debt Clip Credit Card Wallet Student Credit Card Application Hsb Credit Card Kohls Credit Card Payment Citi Bank Canada Credit Card Credit Card Rate Comparison No Annual Fee Credit Card No Credit Card Needed Web Cam 1St National Bank Credit Card Change Credit Card Number Pre Pay Credit Card Opt Out Credit Card Babies R Us Credit Card Td Bank Credit Card Government Credit Card Services Credit Card Company Visa Credit Card Services Big Lots Credit Card Uk Credit Card Industry 0 Balance Transfers Credit Card Canara Bank Credit Card Omni 3750 Credit Card Machine Credit Card Without Banking Account Credit Card Debt Statute Of Limitation Exxon Credit Card Account Mcraes Credit Card Being Sued For Credit Card Debt Us Airway Dividend Miles Credit Card Free Cell Phone Without Credit Card Consumer Education Credit Card Consolidation Credit Card Machine For Business Credit Card Rates Canada Credit Card Machines Wireless Credit Card Pay Off Calculator American Express Credit Card Applications Macys Credit Card Payment High Apr Credit Card Business Credit Card With No Personal Guarantee Credit Card Cash Advances Cash Back Credit Card Offers Midwest Airline Credit Card Buy Iraq Dinar With Credit Card 0 Interest On Credit Card Credit Card Application Guide.Info Emerge Visa Credit Card Aeon Credit Card Malaysia Online Casino Accepting Credit Card Associates Diamond Credit Card Uk Printable Credit Card Application Merchant Account Credit Card Processing Apply For Discover Credit Card Online Citibank Credit Card Application Status Small Buisness Credit Card Credit Card Solutions Target Credit Card Application Costco Credit Card Merchant Account No Credit Card Credit Report Credit Card Wallets Uk Online Credit Card Payment 9 Month Interest Free Credit Card Airline Rewards Credit Card Cross County Bank Credit Card Credit Card Nation Difference Between A Debit And Credit Card Credit Card Embosser Best Credit Card For Bad Credit Credit Card Help With Credit Card Bills Cheapest Credit Card Interest Business Mileage Credit Card Credit Card To Debit Credit Card In Uk Capital One Credit Card Online Credit Card Payment Gateways Calculating Interest On A Credit Card Cell Phone With No Credit Card Gordons Jeweler Credit Card Credit Card Payments By Phone Free Credit Card Numbers Generator Credit Card Interest Rate Get Credit Card Numbers Fixed Interest Rate Credit Card Computer For Bad Credit With Credit Card College Student Credit Card Offer Instant Online Credit Card Application Credit Card Numbers That Work Free Stolen Credit Card Numbers Best Uk Credit Card Bank Of America Goverment Credit Card Orchard Bank Credit Card Account Kohls Credit Card Application Instant Approval Poor Credit Card Emerge Credit Card Payment Credit Card Industry Information Credit Card Applications On Line Balance Transfer Credit Card Offers Petrol Credit Card Credit Card Fraud Scams Advanta Credit Card No Fee Credit Card Canada American Credit Card Processing Corporation Application For Credit Card Unsecured Credit Card Approval Online Kaufmans Credit Card Credit Card Number Generator Hack Reporting Stolen Credit Card Student Mastercard Credit Card Secured Business Credit Card Offers Airmiles Credit Card Uk Credit Card Generator Software Download Credit Card Bottle Opener Bank Credit Card Company One Which Credit Card Nigerian Credit Card Fraud Capital One Credit Card Payments Egg Credit Card Apply Online Intelligent Finance Credit Card Processing Credit Card Credit Card Interest Rates Australia Orchard Bank Credit Card Raising Minimum Credit Card Payment Credit Card With Bad Credit History No Credit Card Required Psychic Reading Credit Card Gift Card Valid Credit Card Numbers With Expiry Date Discount Merchant Credit Card Processing Uk Platinum Credit Card Credit Card Debt Help Uk Ameriquest Credit Card Natwest Credit Card Application Sears Credit Card Online Payment Household Bank Credit Card Phone Number Golf Digest Credit Card How To Get A Credit Card Machine Carding Credit Card Best Credit Card Deals For Balance Transfers Accept Credit Card Via Computer Accept Credit Card Canada Free No Credit Check Cellular Phone No Credit Card Credit Card Online Instant Decision Master Card College Credit Card Credit Card Airline Point Worldperks Credit Card Apply Online Mbna Low Apr Credit Card Services Alliance Bank Malaysia Credit Card Credit Card Instant Access Processing Credit Card Transactions Direct Access Credit Card Southern Bank Credit Card Apr Rates Credit Card Cvv Generator Apply For Low Rate Credit Card Credit Card Transfer Deal Credit Card Consolodation Frequent Flier Credit Card Nbna Credit Card Free Credit Card Reports Delta Airlines Visa Credit Card Credit Card Lottery Midwest Airlines Credit Card Victoria Secrets Angels Credit Card Household Bank Pay Credit Card Capital One Credit Card Balance Mbna Credit Card Customer Service Casual Corner Credit Card Credit Card Deal Credit Card Reporting Agency Accept Free Credit Card Payment Chase Manhattan Credit Card Payment Fair Credit Card Merchant Credit Card Processing Service Accept Online Credit Card Payment Credit Card Application With Delinquent Chase Platinum Visa Credit Card 0 Interest Credit Card Transfer Balance Free Live Cams No Credit Card Good Credit Card Deals Chillispot Credit Card Credit Card Bad Debit Lukoil Credit Card Bank One Credit Card Payments Credit Card Machine Canadian Student Credit Card Credit Card Processing Online Chase Cash Back Credit Card New Credit Card 9.9Mp Digital Camera Video Webcam Equifax Free Credit Report With Out Credit Card Small Business Credit Card Processing Credit Card Guaranteed Approval Online End Credit Card Debt Magnetic Credit Card Reader Business Credit Card No Credit History Chase Manhattan Business Credit Card Disputing Credit Card Charges No Transfer Fee Credit Card Nextcard Credit Card Nextcard Credit Card Payment Fleet Bank Of America Credit Card Services Rbos Credit Card Limited Brand Credit Card Jcb Credit Card Preloaded Credit Card Citi Credit Card Log In Issue Number On Credit Card Free Credit Card Uk Providian Credit Card Login Credit Card Processing Equipment Instant Approval Credit Card Small Business Discover Credit Card Login 0 Fixed Apr Credit Card Single Use Credit Card Visa No Credit Required Credit Card St George Bank Credit Card Best Buy Credit Card Pay Egg Credit Card 0 No Credit Card Required Free Web Cam Sex 5 Star Bank Credit Card Credit Card Tax Payment Bank One Credit Card Payment Address Get Out Of Credit Card Debt Fraudulent Credit Card Charges Free Credit Card Affiliate Program Well Fargo Credit Card Payment Citi Credit Card Phone Number Business Credit Card No Credit Compare Credit Card Australia No Credit Card Required Credit Report Sucured Credit Card Omni Credit Card Terminal Number On A Credit Card Gold Credit Card Sears Credit Card Payment The Best Cash Back Credit Card Negotiate Credit Card Rate Credit Card Number Generation How To Increase Your Credit Card Credit Card Best Chevron Credit Card Services Accept International Credit Card Credit Card Settlement 1099 Chase Credit Card Homepage Remove Name From Credit Card Apply For A 0 Apr Credit Card Discover Credit Card Pay Bill Consolidate My Credit Card Debt Making Credit Card Declined Credit Card City Credit Card Credit Card Transaction Process Credit Card Counseling Debt Associate Visa Credit Card Never Give Out Your Password Or Credit Card Number Fleet Credit Card Payments Royal Bank Credit Card Corporate Credit Card Associated Bank Credit Card Account Online Online Credit Card Processing Services Prepaid Credit Card In Uk Bank One College Credit Card College Student Credit Card Debt Statistics Paypal Credit Card Payment Funny Credit Card Best Credit Card Balance Transfers Business Credit Card Applications Mbna Credit Card Access Credit Card Affiliate Programs Fleet Credit Card Login Free Visa Credit Card Numbers Credit Card Dumps Credit Card Casino Majestic Visa Credit Card Free Cell Phones No Credit Card Required Student Credit Card Canada Capitolone.Com Credit Card High School Credit Card Nat West Credit Card Apply For Sears Credit Card Credit Card Account Access Instant On Line Credit Card Approval Ebay Credit Card Fraud Egg.Com Credit Card Citibank Credit Card Account Coop Travel Credit Card Chase Manhattan Bank Credit Card Services Bank One Aarp Credit Card Firestone Credit Card Credit Card To Bank Credit Card Gift Credit Card To Pay Income Tax Bendigo Bank Credit Card Abnamro Bank Credit Card Mobile Merchant Credit Card Processing Business Credit Card On Line Valero Gas Credit Card Xircom Credit Card Ethernet Adapter Alaska Airline Credit Card Application Buy Prepaid Credit Card Online What Is A Credit Card Webcam Chat Free No Credit Card Best College Credit Card Lowering Credit Card Interest Egg Credit Card Uk Usaa Credit Card Service Associate National Bank Credit Card Icici Bank Credit Card Division Long Credit Card Wallet Airlines Credit Card Sued By Credit Card Valid Credit Card Numbers And Names Credit Card Fraud Statistics Lower Credit Card Rates Best Buy Credit Card Customer Service Fuel Credit Card Cross Country Bank Credit Card Credit Card Offers By Mail Accept Credit Card Today Accept Credit Card Transactions Peoples Credit Card Number Amsouth Credit Card Atm Credit Card Oft Credit Card Charges Capital One Payment Center For Credit Card Victorias Secret Credit Card Website Credit Card Reader Writer What Is Apr Credit Card World Financial Network National Bank Credit Card Exxon Mobil Credit Card Services Credit Card Number Listings Canadian Credit Card For Bad Credit Free Credit Score Without Credit Card Apply For Credit Card With No Credit History Household Bank Credit Card Pay Online Chase Credit Card Scam Java Script Validation Credit Card Date Mbna Canada Credit Card Citibank Credit Card Company Credit Card Offer Canada Online Credit Card Fraud Statistics Apply For Student Credit Card Credit Card Fraud Most Wanted Mileage Plus Credit Card Credit Card Fraud Alerts How Is Credit Card Interest O Purchases Credit Card Purchase Money Order Credit Card Valid Credit Card Numbers Gas Credit Card Compare Credit Card Deals Credit Card Online Banking Garanteed Credit Card Everyone Approved Credit Card Provian Credit Card Instant Business Credit Card Credit Card Number Required Visa Credit Card Canada Garunteed Approval Credit Card Bp Amoco Credit Card Associate Citibank Credit Card Credit Card Merchant Services Costco Credit Card Student Associate Visa Credit Card Credit Card Fixed Rate Beneficial National Bank Credit Card Accepting Credit Card For Business Send Money Via Credit Card Delinquent Credit Card Mbna America Credit Card Services Credit Card Debt Default Free Gas Credit Card Chase Ultimate Rewards Credit Card 0 Finance Credit Card American Express Delta Credit Card Usaa Credit Card Login Airline Credit Card Comparisons Coperative Bank Credit Card Us Airways Visa Credit Card Cirrus Visa Credit Card Canadian Credit Card Application How To Hack Credit Card Numbers Chase Credit Card Reward Program Pos Credit Card Terminal Credit Card Terminal System At T Universal Platinum Master Card Credit Card Credit Card Calculator Uk Public Bank Credit Card Credit Card Applications For People With Bad Credit Smint Credit Card Credit Card Coupon Credit Card Agency Discover Titanium Credit Card No Credit Card Required Free Nude Web Cam Opt Out Credit Card Offer Online Approval Business Credit Card Credit Card Service Business Merchant What Is Credit Card Fraud Minimum Payment Credit Card Calculator Busines Credit Card Circuitcity Credit Card Establishing Credit Credit Card Single Use Credit Card Number Instant Response Student Credit Card Credit Card With Frequent Flyer Reward Lowes Capital One Visa Credit Card Conoco Gas Credit Card Your Own Credit Card Accepting Credit Card Payments Online Free Porn Without Credit Card Credit Card Making Machine Charging A Credit Card Credit Card No Checking Account Goldfish Credit Card Application Online Approval For Credit Card Cbusa Sears Credit Card Foleys Department Store Credit Card Bp Gas Credit Card Application Credit Card Generators Download Credit Loan Chase Credit Card American Express Credit Card India Unsecured Credit Card First Financial Bank Credit Card Cheap Apr Credit Card Free Credit Card Generator Downloads American Express Credit Card Uk Inteligent Finance Credit Card Free Cell Phone No Credit Card Ge Credit Card Online Payment Cabela'S Credit Card America Bank Credit Card Decision Credit Card Affiliate Program Balance Transfer Credit Card For Bad Credit Best Secured Credit Card Visa Credit Card Number Format Canadian Tire Credit Card Application Cell Phone Credit Card Barnes And Noble Credit Card Send Money Using Credit Card Credit Card Debt Management Services Capital One Credit Card Application Gateway Computer Credit Card Terminate Credit Card Standard Chartered Credit Card Singapore Credit Card Debt Collection Practice Can T Pay Credit Card Visa And Master Credit Card Credit Card Lowest Tax Payments Credit Card Bankruptcy Law Credit Card Credit Card Theft Credit Card Deals In The Uk Accept Credit Card With Bad Credit Free Porn Web Cam No Credit Card Required Best Airline Credit Card Keynotes Credit Card Office Depot Business Credit Card Gold Fish Credit Card Uk Credit Card Pin Numbers Send Money Online With Credit Card Credit Card Application For Bad Credit Real Credit Card Number Canadian Credit Card For People With Bad Credit Credit Card Deals Balance Alliance And Leicester Credit Card Uk Credit Card Gift Cards Free Credit Card Numbers Name Baby Phat Prepaid Credit Card Cancelling Credit Card Accounts Wireless Credit Card Processing Terminal Credit Card Thief Bank Of America Credit Card Payment Online Capital One Credit Card For Canadian Credit Card Calculator Southwest Visa Credit Card Ecommerce Credit Card Processing Discover Business Credit Card Credit Card Minimum Payment Buy A Money Order With A Credit Card Magnifier Light Credit Card Cheap Credit Card Pre Paid Credit Card Australia Offshore Credit Card Processors Business Credit Card For People With Bad Credit Free Porn Video No Credit Card 5 Cashback Credit Card Pay Best Buy Credit Card Hhld Credit Card Services Capital One Credit Card Online Bill Pay Back Of A Credit Card Mbna Credit Card Application Form Prepay Credit Card Uk Credit Card Approval For Bad Credit Privacy Guard Credit Card Unsecured Credit Card Debt Calculate Credit Card Payment Credit Card Charge Offs Credit Card For Bad Credit And No Checking Account Best Credit Card Rewards Programs Standard Chartered Bank Credit Card Accept Credit Card At Your Garage Sale Cortrust Bank Credit Card Credit Card Data How To Make Credit Card Credit Card Garnishment Wal Mart Credit Card Canada Credit Card Calculator Apr Beginner Credit Card Chevy Chase Credit Card Best Credit Card Reward New Credit Card Minimum Payment Poor Credit Card Offer Dodge Reward Credit Card Bankone Visa Credit Card Pre Approved Credit Card Canada Credit Card Application Center.Com Credit Card Generators Downloads 0 Financing Credit Card Visa Credit Card Processing Free Credit Card Debt Counseling Pay Capital One Credit Card Homedepot.Com Credit Card Fleet Credit Card Access Credit Card Readerwriter Bad Credit Credit Card Canada Credit Card Loans Best Credit Card To Have Credit Card Fraud Cases Credit Card Comparison Uk Credit Card Processing Terminals Virtual Credit Card Number Rapid Rewards Credit Card Credit Card Interest Calculation New York And Company Credit Card Business Credit Card No Personal Accepting Credit Card Payment How To Get Cash From Credit Card Credit Card Theft Laws Free Live Web Cam No Credit Card Needed John Lewis Partnership Credit Card Credit Card Settlement Offer Free Credit Score No Credit Card Required Cashback Credit Card Uk Credit Card Sleeve Credit Card Fraud Australia High Risk Credit Card Company To Imagine Credit Card First Usa Bank Credit Card Credit Card Reseller Credit Card Interest Calculated Capital One Credit Card Account Fraud Credit Card China Credit Card Pacific Sunwear Credit Card Free Porn Site No Credit Card Needed No Cash Advance Fee Credit Card Advanta Business Credit Card Free Credit Card Calculator For A Moment Chase Credit Card No Credit Card Free Live Sex Cam Credit Card Payment Template Associates Diamond Credit Card Application Credit Card Lowest Interest Rate Paying Rent With Credit Card Victoria Secret Angel Credit Card Article Credit Card Debt Visa Signature Credit Card Eliminate Credit Card Debt Without Bankruptcy Orchard Bank Mastercard Credit Card Shell Credit Card Online Payments Canadian Credit Card Offer Credit Card Merchant Account On Web Site Mail Credit Card Offers Compare Credit Card Company One Time Use Credit Card Numbers Credit Card Swipers Apply For A Visa Credit Card Free Cell Phone No Credit Check No Credit Card Legally Eliminate Credit Card Debt Good Times Credit Card Metal Credit Card Holder Capital One Platinum Credit Card 0 Credit Card Chase Mastercard Credit Card Application Credit Card Vs Debit Card Jcb Credit Card Logo Icici Bank Credit Card Department Manual Credit Card Hacked Credit Card Number Lance Henriksen Credit Card Paymentech Credit Card Processing Wachovia Credit Card Services Mobile Credit Card Processing Equipment Shell Credit Card Payment Center Mobil Gasoline Credit Card Using Credit Card To Buy E Gold Credit Card Cash Advance Fee Soutwest Airlines Credit Card Elan Financial Credit Card Distributed Data Mining In Credit Card Fraud Detection Uk Credit Card Market Alaska Airlines Miles Credit Card Discover Credit Card Log In Mogan Stanley Credit Card Chase Credit Card Pay Online Credit Card Rewards Compare Interest Free Credit Card Bridgestone Firestone Credit Card Credit Card Defaulters List India Discover Platinum Clear Credit Card Texaco Shell Credit Card Services Cancel Credit Card Account Standard Chartered Bank India Credit Card How Credit Card Numbers Metal Credit Card Cases Natinwide Credit Card Credit Card Fraud Punishment Monogram Credit Card Bank Of Georgia Contact Capitalone Credit Card Application Wireless Credit Card Machines Morgan Stanley Credit Card Cash Back Credit Card Machines For Businesses Defaulting On A Credit Card Unsecured Credit Card For Bad Credit Fleet Credit Card Pay Online Student Credit Card In Canada Credit Card Acceptance Company Circuit City Credit Card Payments Make A Fake Credit Card Att Credit Card Online Dinner Club Credit Card Capital One No Hassle Credit Card Batch Credit Card Processing Air Miles Credit Card No Annual Fee Interest On A Credit Card Visa Business Credit Card Credit Card Payment Calculator Credit Card Number Font Bad Credit Card Offers Accept Master Card Credit Card American Express Credit Card Login Commerce Bank Credit Card Tesco Credit Card Apply Credit Card Counciling Credit Card Numbers Free Associates Credit Card Uk Credit Card Interest Rate Calculations Krisflyer Credit Card Cheap Credit Card Deals Apply Credit Card No Credit Card Applications Online Credit Card No Bank Account Credit Card Processing Terminal Credit Card Wallets Online Credit Card Application Instant Decision Adult Credit Card Processing College Savings Credit Card Alliance Leicester Credit Card Cash Back Business Credit Card Low Rate Credit Card Numbers On Receipt Credit Card No Mbna Credit Card Pre Paid Credit Card Providian Emerge Credit Card Virginia Credit Card Processing Service Customer Service Number For Discover Credit Card Secured Low Rate Credit Card Chase Credit Card Commercial Theme Song Credit Card Interchange Credit Card As Payment Marbles Credit Card Website Digital Age Credit Card Fraud Compare Credit Card Online Credit Card Fraud Pdf Low Rate Credit Card Balance Transfer Pay Off Credit Card Fast Search Capital One Credit Card Account Free Credit Card Information Credit Card With Cosigners Belk Credit Card Student Loan And Credit Card Mobile Credit Card Reader Conoco Credit Card Heartland Credit Card Processing Free Credit Card Low Interest Rate Credit Card Offer Shell Credit Card Center Beneficial Finance Credit Card Business Credit Card For Startup Secured Gold Credit Card Goldfish Credit Card Log On Citi Cards Credit Card Credit Card Loan Best Credit Card Benefits Credit Card Finance Calculator Credit Card Fraud Law No Credit Card Required Cell Phones Virtual Online Credit Card Morgan Stanley Credit Card Online Credit Card No Interest Uk Credit Card Comparisons Australia Change Credit Card Payment Aspire Visa Credit Card Phone Number Credit Card Number Encryption Millenium Bank Credit Card Eon Bank Credit Card Discount Tire Credit Card Merrick Bank Secured Credit Card Mask Credit Card Number Citi Credit Card Customer Service Direct Merchants Credit Card Bank N.A. Bank Of America Business Credit Card National Statistics Credit Card Debt Commit Credit Card Fraud Bank Of Ireland Credit Card Credit Card Management Cash From Credit Card Christy Canyon On Video No Credit Card Canadian Credit Card Offers Eclipse Credit Card Machine Free Cell Phone With Out Credit Card Use Aspire Gold Credit Card City Bank Credit Card In India Disney Store Credit Card Consumer Credit Card Rating Credit Card From Chase Citi Credit Card Customer Aspire Credit Card Web Site Denied Credit Card Worldpoints Credit Card Credit Card After Bankruptcy Credit Card Debt Statistics Balance Transfer On Credit Card Credit Card Interest Formula Accept Credit Card Payments On Line Direct Access Southern Bank Credit Card Citibank Credit Card Online Chasefreedom Credit Card Lost Credit Card Credit Card For Fair Credit Bp Credit Card Payment Protecting Your Credit Card Air Line Mile Credit Card Us Capital One Credit Card Lowes Apply For Credit Card President Choice Credit Card Aarp Chase Credit Card Business Credit Card No Personal Credit Check Instant Approval Balance Transfer Credit Card Banker Credit Card Service Accept Credit Card Payments On Website Att Universal Credit Card Payment Credit Card Generator 4 1St Credit Card Free Credit Card For People With Bad Credit Credit Card Payment Form Credit Card Terminals Canada Discover Gas Credit Card City Bank Credit Card Application Loyds Tsb Credit Card Robinsons May Credit Card Phone Number Chase Credit Card Jingle Gauranteed Credit Card How To Get Lower Interest Rate On Credit Card How And Credit Card Reader And Magnetic Payment Through Credit Card Ascent Credit Card Credit Card Debt Consolidate It Credit Card Scam Hoax How To Dispute A Credit Card Charge Pay Off Credit Card Fina Credit Card Airline Credit Card temporary car insurance wisconsin car insurance buying car insurance car insurance wisconsin lowest auto insurance lancaster classic car insurance car insurance greenville south carolina car insurance in ontario canada car insurance clarksville kentucky auto insurance faq ontario auto insurance calculators cheap no fault auto insurance state farm auto insurance quote auto insurance direct repair cheapest car insurance company farmersville auto insurance auto insurance wilmington delaware allstate auto insurance claim maryland auto insurance fund cheapest auto insurance rate car insurance greenfield massachusetts progressive auto insurance quotes mexico rental car insurance license and car insurance state form auto insurance ca auto insurance dimaond car insurance car insurance people young commercial auto insurance in nj car insurance for senior citizen ny car insurance rate bristol car insurance confused car insurance uk cheap car insurance in ny ontario car insurance comparison fake auto insurance card auto insurance life met quote car insurance lincoln nebraska the cheapest car insurance in the uk auto insurance claim adjuster qbe car insurance quote state farm classic car insurance car insurance coverage recommendations hartford auto insurance claims auto insurance portland maine no fault car insurance michigan canada car insurance rates car insurance business use hibernian car insurance ireland car insurance lafayette louisiana car insurance clarksville tennessee electric auto insurance jaguar classic car insurance auto insurance quote costco auto insurance co operator car insurance car insurance beaumont texas find cheaper car insurance mercury auto insurance new jersey car insurance women comprehensive coverage auto insurance auto insurance leads car insurance nj automobile car insurance insurance l quote all state car insurance quote online auto insurance quotes canada auto insurance institute churchilll car insurance cheapest florida car insurance auto insurance claim auto insurance affiliate program cheap car insurance for banned drivers rogressive car insurance list of car insurance companies hibernian car insurance quote state farm car insurance quote california auto insurance company best car insurance uk california auto insurance regulations car insurance duluth minnesota aaa car insurance services travel car insurance in florida auto insurance in michigan brooklyn car insurance calgary car insurance quote farmers auto insurance commercial car insurance massachusetts worcester south carolina auto insurance law car insurance lesson plan home owner auto insurance quote auto insurance medical owner canadian car insurance rates more than car insurance tel auto insurance premiums cheap auto insurance in canada car insurance canada ontario ontario car insurance quotes traveler auto insurance company auto insurance la crosse minnesota ais auto insurance broker alexandria car insurance louisiana average car insurance rates cheapest student car insurance motor car insurance quotes car insurance company ireland auto insurance ontario quote auto insurance lampasas car insurance chicago mercury auto insurance company lowest car insurance car insurance scams nebraska auto insurance car insurance group search cheap west virginia car insurance california auto insurance business car insurance rental california car insurance rates auto insurance mercury monthly car insurance state farmers car insurance massachusetts car insurance quote premium cheapest car insurance hot rod car insurance frizelle car insurance xheap car insurance compare cheap car insurance accident auto insurance settlement chubb auto insurance car insurance rating safety new jersey classic car insurance classic car insurance northern ireland car insurance qoutes shanons car insurance endsleigh car insurance quote auto insurance life online quote term contract hire car insurance auto insurance killeen texas selling car insurance progressive auto insurance reviews high risk auto insurance toronto auto insurance estimates discount car insurance company auto insurance and learner s permit and massachusetts performance car insurance uk auto insurance houstontx tennessee car insurance law cheap car insurance co cheapest car insurance for new drivers car insurance convicted drivers www budget car insurance car insurance comparison sites online car insurance in uk classic car insurance quote online find car insurance car insurance internet quote auto insurance attorney auto insurance redding california drivers choice car insurance car insurance best quote dimond car insurance military car insurance nj auto insurance agencies titan auto insurance denver highpoint auto insurance nj cheep car insurance for young drivers car insurance multiple quote car insurance groups 1 20 cheap car insurance quotes online car insurance quotes auto insurance dallas dominion auto insurance tesco car insurance online state of massachusetts auto insurance premium choice car insurance convictions car insurance auto insurance lawsuit high risk car insurance ontario auction auto insurance car insurance quotations uk kit car insurance online quote auto insurance rate by state state farm auto insurance claim classic car insurance uk car insurance decatur alabama safe auto insurance quotes eastwood auto insurance car insurance companies uk allstate auto insurance agent frizzell car insurance uk online car insurance australia car insurance coverage options gieco car insurance company auto insurance quote online auto insurance franchise geico auto insurance new jersey liberty mutual car insurance rates low deposit car insurance ma car insurance quotes car insurance nassau motor car insurance qbe car insurance cheap car insurance quote online car insurance eureka california cheap sports car insurance car insurance comparison quotes car insurance quotations ireland recommended auto insurance coverage nj manufacturer car insurance car insurance for young lady drivers car insurance policy numbers nj auto insurance law high risk auto insurance ontario driving churchill car insurance california low cost auto insurance program cheapest car insurance quote online car insurance coverage types young person car insurance uk auto insurance rochester minnesota usaa car insurance phone number auto insurance claims questions auto insurance information rental car insurance in mexico auto insurance rate and quote free ing direct car insurance car insurance sioux falls car insurance rapid city south dakota cheap auto insurance in new jersey florida car insurance company auto insurance charleston south carolina columbia car insurance best car insurance quinn direct car insurance quotes add car insurance link auto insurance agency 21st century car insurance georgia auto insurance canadian auto insurance quote south carolina auto insurance kentucky auto insurance quote auto insurance irvine california hartford auto insurance cheapest car insurance young new car insurance law fire and theft car insurance ratings of auto insurance titan auto insurance arizona car insurance quotation ireland car insurance for convicted drivers car insurance in australia aaa alabama car insurance low cost auto insurance in california cis online car insurance quote direct line car insurance auto insurance louisiana quote auto insurance columbia south carolina low price car insurance low down payment car insurance auto insurance quote ontario amica auto insurance quote young persons car insurance uk car insurance fraud chep car insurance car insurance lowest rate safest auto insurance broker california cheep car insurance car insurance bloomington indiana nrma car insurance nsw concord group auto insurance auto insurance in boston auto insurance knoxville tennessee pc car insurance churchills car insurance car insurance in massachussetts auto insurance discounter sainsburies car insurance auto insurance terms car insurance quotes in ontario third party car insurance uk car insurance exeter new hampshire wawanessa car insurance egg car insurance car insurance in pa maryland auto insurance rate car insurance ireland provisional canadian car insurance quotes cheap full coverage auto insurance car insurance in ca direct line car insurance online quote car insurance grand rapid great american auto insurance usagencies auto insurance quick quotes on car insurance auto insurance save with gmac auto insurance in georgia progressive car insurance reviews shannons car insurance australia amex auto insurance state auto insurance company usagencies car insurance progressiv free car insurance quote car insurance guides anpac auto insurance auto insurance mercury nj classic custom car insurance car insurance hartford online quote auto insurance auto insurance brokers toronto nfu car insurance quotes prudential auto insurance nj ohio free auto insurance quote auto insurance codes auto insurance california forum cheap california auto insurance quote grundy auto insurance texas car insurance law oregon car insurance laws auto insurance broker toronto auto insurance lawyer car insurance qoutes online short term car insurance cover car insurance columbus georgia open and direct car insurance alexandria car insurance motor car insurance uk haggertys car insurance largest auto insurance company admeral car insurance car insurance coverages car insurance new rate auto insurance missouri springfield ct car insurance company auto insurance in texas cheapest online auto insurance auto insurance license prudential auto insurance auto insurance jersey new online instant online auto insurance quote car insurance in ma bell direct car insurance premium search car insurance frizzell car insurance quote sgio car insurance free auto insurance quote ontario tesco car insurance auto insurance agencies for sale auto insurance claim advice car insurance milford connecticut best auto insurance company esurance auto insurance review car insurance new quote york geiko auto insurance usaa military car insurance quote for car insurance in california auto insurance in maryland auto insurance quote traveler progessive auto insurance car insurance cards car insurance in houston texas fortis car insurance uk farm bureau of georgia auto insurance cheap auto insurance quotes quote me happy car insurance uk online car insurance quote canada canada car insurance progressive auto insurance brokers in mississauga car insurance estimator n ireland car insurance car insurance ireland n colorado auto insurance law car insurance tesco online auto insurance company quote unitrin auto insurance review auto insurance online quote ontario car insurance fort worth car insurance ma rate cheap short term car insurance car insurance in mexico houston tx auto insurance auto insurance canada toronto more than car insurance quotation monex car insurance buy car insurance online average auto insurance cost european car insurance cover cheaper car insurance norwich union car insurance quote auto insurance quotes alberta discount auto insurance houston car insurance quick quote uk car insurance alexandria minnesota auto insurance brokers in ontario new car insurance rates homeowners auto insurance free car insurance quote canada nrma car insurance quotes by car insurance rate state adjuster auto insurance car insurance prices in canada california auto insurance commisioner colorado car insurance rate a auto insurance nationwide car insurance uk auto insurance company ma auto insurance progresive rate birmingham car insurance auto insurance definition presidence choice auto insurance low car insurance uk rates for car insurance car insurance brokers of canada auto insurance rate quotes cheap auto insurance in louisiana michigan car insurance laws compare car insurance company diamond car insurance for ladies va car insurance car insurance johnson city tennessee president choice car insurance car insurance progressive teen car insurance cover bmw car insurance car insurance cheyenne wyoming california car insurance law hyper formance car insurance cheap car insurance for drink drivers cheap car insurance for lady drivers non owners car insurance car insurance policy car insurance ireland northern quote auto insurance nevada adrianas car insurance car insurance guidelines car insurance augusta south carolina cheap car insurance california car insurance ny state high risk car insurance in canada geico car insurance commercials california car insurance modesto aig car insurance quote canadian auto insurance unitrin direct auto insurance review progresiv free car insurance quote new york auto insurance quotes cheap car insurance for 18 year old auto insurance quote online in car insurance lowell massachusetts hot hatch car insurance car insurance atlantic new jersey car insurance quote in canada instant auto insurance car insurance abilene texas car insurance miami performance car insurance online international car insurance mercury car insurance los angeles auto insurance customer satisfaction ratings auto insurance in new jersey minnesota auto insurance law homeowners and auto insurance california free car insurance quote free car insurance quotes ontario modified car insurance quote titan auto insurance az auto insurance companies in toronto canada cheap car insurance quote me happy arizona auction auto insurance car insurance uk warranty car insurance sell quinns direct car insurance texas car insurance laws car insurance estimate uk hyper car insurance progressive car insurance company top quote car insurance car insurance settlement tyres churchill car insurance aa car insurance uk minnesota car insurance more than car insurance quote car insurance search auto insurance cost auto insurance carrier car insurance cleveland ohio united home and auto insurance car insurance searchers its4u car insurance minnesota auto insurance car insurance advice cheap car insurance co uk car insurance quote uk auto insurance baltimore haggerty classic car insurance alaska car insurance beavercreek auto insurance no fault car insurance states new drivers car insurance auto insurance company complaint auto insurance liability quote write off car insurance car insurance kingston new york new car insurance laws firebond car insurance auto insurance history auto insurance in mexico car insurance lead car insurance in new york city hill house hammond car insurance wawanesa auto insurance quote new york car insurance laws wawanesa car insurance san diego car insurance brokers car insurance rate comparisons auto insurance specialist california car insurance margate arkansas auto insurance manitoba car insurance actual cash value car insurance liberty mutual auto insurance rating canada car insurance ontario rate nationwide auto insurance company seattle car insurance shannons car insurance cheap car insurance in new international car insurance europe pass pluss car insurance allstate auto insurance quotes michigan car insurance quotes dashers auto insurance car insurance for business car insurance phoenix auto insurance premium nrma car insurance australia alaska auto insurance quote direct choice car insurance eastwood car insurance car insurance wichita falls teen car insurance car insurance low rate car insurance costs cheap miami car insurance diamond car insurance for girls auto insurance dover delaware auto insurance estimate cheap car insurance broker esurance car insurance auto insurance mexico short term aaa alaska car insurance arkansas car insurance little rock pizza delivery car insurance car insurance boston calculator car insurance sample auto insurance card allstate car insurance claim auto insurance progressive texas car insurance compare quote cheap car insurance for people uk post office car insurance auto insurance coverages car insurance england monthly car insurance uk car insurance quotes for young drivers massachusetts auto insurance quote motor car insurance companies tesscos car insurance cheap car insurance new driver auto insurance declaration page mercury auto insurance quote state farm car insurance new jersey auto insurance for springfield ma esure car insurance uk liverpoll victoria car insurance car insurance in manchester antique car insurance canada alberta car insurance online quote tesco car insurance phone number pennsylvania car insurance quotes complaint about allstate auto insurance doug forestor car insurance policy canadian car insurance rate auto insurance company reviews dominion of canada auto insurance auto insurance law pennsylvania car insurance harrisonburg virginia new york state car insurance laws hagarty classic car insurance hartford car insurance company state farm car insurance quotes car insurance company car driver car insurance company in canada auto insurance payment progressive quick car insurance quote morethan car insurance quote car insurance only woman safeco auto insurance quote the general car insurance aa car insurance sinsburys car insurance lincoln auto insurance the hartford car insurance century 21 car insurance quote cheap car insurance usa grey import car insurance car insurance estimate auto insurance claim question car insurance company in michigan nh auto insurance law car insurance calculation aaa car insurance michigan car insurance uk multiple auto insurance law pa usaa auto insurance quotes female car insurance quote inexpensive auto insurance driver choice auto insurance diomand car insurance quinn direct ireland car insurance car insurance forums american independent auto insurance new york auto insurance laws rental car insurance tips car insurance cost car insurance concord new hampshire frizells car insurance information on car insurance high point car insurance state farm auto insurance rates cheap car insurance quotes for women auto insurance price comparison fast track car insurance auto insurance guides auto insurance danbury connecticut short term auto insurance ontario auto insurance with military discount home and auto insurance rates geico direct car insurance republic indemnity auto insurance auto insurance brokers ottawa car insurance on line cheap womens car insurance footman james classic car insurance find cheap car insurance uk cheap car insurance in northern ireland car insurance coverage classic car insurance canada cheap car insurance female compare auto insurance rate maryland auto insurance company churchill car insurance in uk car insurance quebec esure car insurance quotes auto insurance certificate classic car insurance quotes auto insurance settlement white car insurance uk comparison sports car insurance for young drivers hot springs auto insurance car insurance mercury quote mercury car insurance in nj car insurance qoutes uk affirmative auto insurance car insurance springfield massachusetts progressive car insurance quotes arizona car insurance yuma antique car insurance legal liability asi auto insurance mercury auto insurance california esure car insurance tennessee car insurance laws california car insurance stockton cheap florida auto insurance progresive florida car insurance california casualty auto insurance corpus christi auto insurance car insurance uk direct line massachusetts car insurance companies rental car insurance commercial auto insurance company churchill car insurance telephone kentucky auto insurance law state auto insurance nationwide auto insurance quotes car insurance brokers in toronto car insurance company's auto insurance news auto insurance broker in ontario car insurance johnstown pennsylvania young drivers car insurance uk low rate auto insurance free car insurance quotes online nationwide uk car insurance cheap car insurance women cheapest online car insurance auto insurance law state car insurance claim procedure auto insurance texas cheap cheap auto insurance in ontario canada vheap car insurance car insurance little rock arkansas car insurance pricing car insurance woman only california car insurance price georgia car insurance rate car insurance germany auto insurance online quote rate new jersey manufactures car insurance auto insurance report alabama car insurance country company auto insurance insurance auto insurance illinois car insurance online dirt cheap car insurance rodney d young car insurance car insurance online quote uk oregon auto insurance colector car insurance flat rate auto insurance car insurance tips assurance auto insurance auto insurance jersey manufacture new car insurance rate in new york geico auto insurance complaints car insurance altoona pennsylvania auto insurance settlements new jersey auto insurance quote cheap car insurance ma performance car insurance for young drivers auto insurance rates in ontario cheapest car insurance in florida auto insurance premium calculator info on car insurance kit car insurance prudential car insurance car insurance fayetteville arkansas progressive car insurance phone number a affordable auto insurance framingham cheap car insurance comparison car insurance company usaa california minimum auto insurance direct auto insurance which car insurance progressive car insurance commercials geico auto insurance auto insurance companies auto insurance ontario rate royal sun alliance car insurance tescos car insurance quote best auto insurance rates ontario best cheap car insurance car insurance maintenance car insurance rates comparison auto insurance providers car insurance estimate canada car insurance rate farmers car insurance quote jaguar car insurance imported car insurance commercial auto insurance nj modified car insurance online ladystar car insurance auto insurance card templates best car insurance rates by car insurance rate car insurance group list california car insurance jose san new jersey car insurance quotes car insurance south australia car insurance quote ontario auto insurance car insurance fact naffi car insurance month by month car insurance honda car insurance car insurance nevada quote auto insurance law in pa argos car insurance doric car insurance esurance auto insurance california cheap car insurance quote get car insurance pennsylvania car insurance companies car insurance boston ma metropolitan auto insurance get car insurance quote classic automobile car insurance auto insurance complaints florida 65 age car insurance woman alberta auto insurance car insurance ma cheap car insurance supermarket auto insurance internet sheila car insurance get auto insurance quote online utah auto insurance rate lady car insurance car insurance cat grundy classic car insurance alstate auto insurance classic car insurance for young driver ontario car insurance brokers auto insurance broker canada cooperators car insurance jeep auto insurance long beach auto insurance online motor car insurance car insurance fitchburg car insurance rental frizzels car insurance no claims bonus car insurance manitoba car insurance rates canadian car insurance qoutes meemic car insurance cheap auto insurance delaware car insurance boise city idaho michigan auto insurance rate aflac auto insurance car insurance claim letter lloyds tsb car insurance car insurance in philadelphia cheap car insurance florida car insurance group finder pc financial auto insurance auto insurance rates car insurance quotes online uk farm bureau auto insurance north carolina tesco car insurance deal codes rias car insurance car insurance category list cheap motor car insurance quote cheap arizona auto insurance auto insurance specialist norich union car insurance alstate car insurance easy car insurance norwich union car insurance claims florida car insurance quotes cheap female car insurance sainsburys car insurance uk brazoria car insurance state auto insurance co caa auto insurance car insurance card template providant car insurance car insurance cincinnati workmens auto insurance company liverpool victoria car insurance quotes auto insurance ratings hagerty antique auto insurance car insurance houston tx permanent general auto insurance auto insurance best quotes quote auto insurance new jersey car insurance laws classsic car insurance cheaper car insurance dumbarton best rated car insurance buy car insurance on line auto insurance brokers canada search for car insurance quotes auto insurance law ontario high risk car insurance companies rate auto insurance company car insurance washington dc progressiv california auto insurance quote car insurance quotes young loyds tsb car insurance quickfit car insurance age concern car insurance quinn direct car insurance quote new car insurance coverage cheap liability car insurance car insurance low priced rate arizona auto insurance rate instant car insurance qoute missouri car insurance quote bakersfield auto insurance car insurance columbus indiana fred loya auto insurance young driver car insurance uk henrys auto insurance classic car insurance company jd powers auto insurance adjuster auto insurance job nashville uninsured car insurance quote kingsway auto insurance arizona car insurance rate car insurance durango car insurance rating group lowest car insurance rate sainsburys car insurance quote nj car insurance agency texas auto insurance what is non owner coverage libery mutual car insurance car insurance maryland quote car insurance comparisons uk quick car insurance quote uk thrifty car insurance auto insurance houston tx michigan car insurance quote car insurance kentucky online online cheapest car insurance non owner auto insurance liability rental car louisiana auto insurance company affordable auto insurance houston geico car insurance in nj hyper performance car insurance prgressive auto insurance auto insurance chattanooga georgia business car insurance rate auto insurance calculator ontario car insurance company in georgia auto insurance canada quote nys auto insurance auto insurance texas classic car insurance collector personal auto insurance kwik fit car insurance quote car insurance quote asda travelers car insurance car insurance rating uk lowest car insurance rates geico car insurance canada classic car insurance online cheap georgia auto insurance car insurance columbus ohio state farm mutual auto insurance company nj manufactures car insurance best car insurance island rhode auto insurance online purchase hibernian direct car insurance cheap car insurance for girls cheap car insurance in the uk cheap online auto insurance quote california car insurance redding car insurance quote toronto fizzel car insurance cheap car insurance illinois geico auto insurance quotes best car insurance rate auto insurance mcminnville tennessee gecko car insurance auto insurance south carolina car insurance lower ways antique collector car insurance mid century auto insurance collector car insurance in pa auto insurance price quote rating car insurance auto insurance car insurance car insurance ranking economical car insurance cheap car insurance with convictions short term auto insurance top auto insurance car insurance kankakee progressive direct car insurance new jersey auto insurance rate quote for car insurance best auto insurance co car insurance bismarck north dakota car insurance calgary car insurance kentucky car insurance lexus usaa auto insurance 800 farmer auto insurance binghamton car insurance hagarty car insurance long island car insurance accident after auto insurance settlement nj cheapest car insurance car insurance rates ontario auto insurance lawrence massachusetts car insurance jersey new rate usaa auto insurance company aaa auto insurance rating safeway auto insurance auto insurance comparisons maryland auto insurance cheap car insurance companies car insurance mexico home and auto insurance quote california commercial auto insurance auto insurance companies in ma maif maryland auto insurance usaa car insurance contact legal general car insurance calculation of car insurance rate classis car insurance car insurance minnesota rochester a auto insurance melbourne florida no car insurance fine cheap womans car insurance car insurance payments auto insurance brokers in canada california car insurance online quote short term car insurance quotes colorado auto insurance rate auto insurance ontario auto insurance coverage modified car insurance online quote churchill car insurance uk